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CE 366 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS Robert G. Batson, Ph.D., P.E. Professor of Construction Engineering The University of Alabama [email protected] PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CE 366 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS Robert G. Batson, Ph.D., P.E. Professor of Construction Engineering The University of Alabama [email protected] Chapter 6: Production Planning. Production Planning is “ Microplanning ”.

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CE 366 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS Robert G. Batson, Ph.D., P.E. Professor of Construction Engineering The University of Alabama [email protected]

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Ce 366 project management and economics robert g batson ph d p e professor of construction engineering the university of alabama rbatson eng ua edu

CE 366PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICSRobert G. Batson, Ph.D., P.E.Professor of Construction EngineeringThe University of [email protected]


Chapter 6 production planning

Chapter 6:Production Planning


Production planning is microplanning

Production Planning is “Microplanning”

  • Detailed planning of actual operations -- how the activities on the networks or Gantt charts are to be accomplished

  • Production planning firmly establishes

    • The construction methods to be used

    • The assignment of personnel

    • The movement of material to the workface

    • The assembly process

  • Production planning includes

    • Site layout

    • Arrangement of utilities

    • Preparation of storage and prefabrication areas

    • Establishing vehicle pathways and material flow patterns


Planning requires teamwork see team memory jogger provided

Planning Requires Teamwork (See Team Memory Jogger provided)

  • During bidding, the estimator(s) depended on a small team of experienced personnel with appropriate input from suppliers and subcontractors

  • During project planning, the planner(s) depended on a larger group of personnel to create the precedence diagram, identify restraints, and estimate activity and lag times

  • During production planning, the prime contractors, and suppliers develop and commit to detailed plans; also, specialists in personnel, purchasing, transportation, on-site material handling, quality, safety, equipment maintenance, and even security begin to participate


The importance of production planning

The Importance of Production Planning

  • Complete, thorough, and detailed planning prior to starting construction is a proven key to successful project completion

  • The production planning team would review all project documentation available

    • Understand overall project: the work breakdown structure, the bid and budget, the schedule plan, the site documents, the specifications and drawing, the participating firms and individuals

    • With specific attention by individuals to aspects of project that pertain to their managerial responsibilities


The process of production planning

The Process of Production Planning

  • Some aspects of the project are already fixed (boundary conditions) and cannot be changed, for various reasons

  • Other aspects are subject to discussion, redesign or re-planning, and upon approval -- changes are made. This is what the authors mean by “reengineering the project”

  • Brainstorming is a “team creativity” technique used to elicit improvement ideas in a manner of free association, without criticism or comment -- quantity is emphasized at first, evaluation leading to a team recommendation comes later.

  • Detailed production planning may be done in one team for small projects or in subteams for larger projects


Support planning

Support Planning

  • Site permits and preparation require long lead times

  • Access to get materials, equipment, and personnel to the site is another early planning concern

    • Roads and bridges

    • Utility lines

  • Utilities

    • Water, sewer, gas electricity

    • Rail sidings and truck docking facilities

    • Environmental protection, fuel storage, waste disposal

  • Site Layout Drawing (Figure 6.1)

    • Number, size, location of buildings

    • Fence-lines; exit/entry control points

    • Roads, parking, traffic and walking patterns, signage

    • Specialized, but unsheltered areas


Technical planning

Technical Planning

  • Engineering problems requiring specialized training, solved by

    • Contractor personnel

    • Consulting engineering firm

    • Equipment provider (e.g., leased cranes)

  • Construction in difficult environments

    • Downtown areas

    • Waterways or underwater

    • Across gorges, etc.

  • Installation of process equipment

    • Size and weight implications

    • Long-lead (late arrival) implications

  • Hazardous materials use, or disposal

  • Etc.


Personnel planning

Personnel Planning

  • Early identification of the crafts, levels of skill within the craft, and numbers needed

  • Timing: When does the project plan say they are needed?

    • Ramp up?

    • Ramp down?

    • Share with other projects in prime contractor’s portfolio?

  • Screening, interviews, drug testing, hiring to match needs

  • Consistent wages and benefits for hourly personnel

    • Consistency on the site

    • Consistency with competing opportunities off-site

  • Training programs (skill, safety rules, perhaps English)

  • Housing and transportation may be required


Safety planning

Safety Planning

  • Construction is inherently dangerous; safety must be planned

  • The safety manager (or committee) can develop a safety program, consistent with OSHA regulations, but managers/personnel make it effective (or not)

  • Foremen have a particularly important role

    • Assure employees wear personal protective equipment (PPE) and use other safety equipment appropriately

    • Emphasize safety first, productivity second

    • Notice and correct unsafe acts, perhaps apply penalties

    • Quick actions on unsafe conditions (environment or equipment)

  • Emergency procedures must be planned, communicated, and practiced

  • There are standard, engineered solutions to many construction site hazards; yet each project may require something unique

  • You will learn much more in CE 464 Safety Engineering


Quality planning

Quality Planning

  • There is an inherent conflict between achieving schedule and the quality of workmanship or overall work results

  • Quality of workmanship in crafts is achieved when

    • The management (through foremen) emphasizes and expects quality in every job

    • The management provides the appropriate drawings, instructions, materials, equipment, training, etc. for the worker to produce quality; and the worker gets feedback

    • The worker is motivated to meet expectations

  • Quality planning especially applied to item 2 above, so e.g. if the worker is expected to mix a batch of concrete, he would have the “recipe” and instructions, the proper materials and equipment, know how to do the steps safely, and then have a way of knowing the batch meets specifications

  • Quality planning applies to technical and business processes as well, at the contractor and in how contractor will manage quality of supplied materials and subcontracted work


Material ordering and expediting

Material Ordering and Expediting

  • Material items and quantities were “take-offs” during the bidding process

  • Material delivery lead times determine the order in which purchase orders are prepared

    • Delivery dates are specified on the order

    • Quantity and quality specifications go along with drawings (if necessary) to the supplier

  • Sometimes, the supplier’s raw materials and fabrication process are subject to audit; samples and testing may be specified to assure quality prior to producing the items in quantity

  • Shipping arrangements and arrival dates are coordinated

  • Any potential delay in manufacturing or shipping requires prompt action, first by expeditor and if necessary by program manager


Material handling storage and protection

Material Handling, Storage, and Protection

  • Arrivals of material on-site should be planned

    • A specific worker should handle the receipt of materials

    • Purchase order is used to check identity and quantity of items

    • Notes are taken on “not correct , short, or damaged” materials

    • Unloading equipment and the designated on-site storage location, unless materials go directly to workface

  • Inventory control procedure are used to track quantities and location of all on-site materials; helps avoid assignment of materials to wrong installation, and also can be used to control accessibility issues

  • The fewer intermediate moves (put down, pick up, move), the better for both material quality and workplace productivity


Equipment planning

Equipment Planning

  • Major equipment items were identified in the bidding process

  • The project schedule indicates when each is needed

  • The company decided whether to buy, lease, or rent the equipment during the bidding process

  • Operational planning would detail:

    • The coverage (or spread) of each equipment item at site

    • The roads or fixed position it will operate on, and any necessary preparation

    • Plans for fueling & operators based on operating hours

  • Maintenance planning would detail:

    • The maintenance facility and equipment

    • A preventive maintenance plan with staffing

    • Spare/repair parts with staffing, or outsourcing plan


Assembly process planning

Assembly Process Planning

  • Construction projects are one-of-a-kind (one-off), but assembly processes can be planned to gain maximum efficiency

    • Subassemblies can be prefabricated

    • Materials can be stored close to their point of use, and moved into place mechanically

    • Power fastening systems

  • Simplify

    • The drawings

    • Work instructions

    • Processes

    • Material flow from stores to processes, and between processes

    • Joining or fastening steps

    • Checking for correct assembly


Weekly production planning

Weekly Production Planning

  • Every foreman must do, or have done for him

  • Next week’s work is identified from a project schedule, perhaps in a meeting or communication with a higher level manager (see Figure 6.3)

  • Checks are made for

    • Drawings (latest version? changes approved? sequenced in the order the work will be done?)

    • Special tools or equipment: will they be available?

    • Required materials; are they on-site? where located and accessible? Also, support materials?

    • Work space condition: access, free of clutter, other crafts to be present, supporting utilities, sufficient lighting?

    • Safety hazards to be resolved; safety equipment available?


Other visual aids for production planning

Other Visual Aids for Production Planning

  • Production Checklists (see Figure 6.2)

  • Look-ahead Schedules

    • 4-6 week rolling schedule for PM and field superintendent

    • 7day look-ahead schedule (foreman’s plan) with dates, workers, and manhours planned for each task

    • Personnel assignments (persons assigned to activities, or split between several; persons assigned to tasks as in Figure 6.3)

    • Site maps with key equipment and work crew locations, updated whenever there is a move


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