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CE 366 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS Robert G. Batson, Ph.D., P.E. Professor of Construction Engineering The University of Alabama Rbatson@eng.ua.edu PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CE 366 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS Robert G. Batson, Ph.D., P.E. Professor of Construction Engineering The University of Alabama Rbatson@eng.ua.edu. Chapter 6: Production Planning. Production Planning is “ Microplanning ”.

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CE 366 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS Robert G. Batson, Ph.D., P.E. Professor of Construction Engineering The University of Alabama Rbatson@eng.ua.edu

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CE 366PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICSRobert G. Batson, Ph.D., P.E.Professor of Construction EngineeringThe University of AlabamaRbatson@eng.ua.edu


Chapter 6:Production Planning


Production Planning is “Microplanning”

  • Detailed planning of actual operations -- how the activities on the networks or Gantt charts are to be accomplished

  • Production planning firmly establishes

    • The construction methods to be used

    • The assignment of personnel

    • The movement of material to the workface

    • The assembly process

  • Production planning includes

    • Site layout

    • Arrangement of utilities

    • Preparation of storage and prefabrication areas

    • Establishing vehicle pathways and material flow patterns


Planning Requires Teamwork (See Team Memory Jogger provided)

  • During bidding, the estimator(s) depended on a small team of experienced personnel with appropriate input from suppliers and subcontractors

  • During project planning, the planner(s) depended on a larger group of personnel to create the precedence diagram, identify restraints, and estimate activity and lag times

  • During production planning, the prime contractors, and suppliers develop and commit to detailed plans; also, specialists in personnel, purchasing, transportation, on-site material handling, quality, safety, equipment maintenance, and even security begin to participate


The Importance of Production Planning

  • Complete, thorough, and detailed planning prior to starting construction is a proven key to successful project completion

  • The production planning team would review all project documentation available

    • Understand overall project: the work breakdown structure, the bid and budget, the schedule plan, the site documents, the specifications and drawing, the participating firms and individuals

    • With specific attention by individuals to aspects of project that pertain to their managerial responsibilities


The Process of Production Planning

  • Some aspects of the project are already fixed (boundary conditions) and cannot be changed, for various reasons

  • Other aspects are subject to discussion, redesign or re-planning, and upon approval -- changes are made. This is what the authors mean by “reengineering the project”

  • Brainstorming is a “team creativity” technique used to elicit improvement ideas in a manner of free association, without criticism or comment -- quantity is emphasized at first, evaluation leading to a team recommendation comes later.

  • Detailed production planning may be done in one team for small projects or in subteams for larger projects


Support Planning

  • Site permits and preparation require long lead times

  • Access to get materials, equipment, and personnel to the site is another early planning concern

    • Roads and bridges

    • Utility lines

  • Utilities

    • Water, sewer, gas electricity

    • Rail sidings and truck docking facilities

    • Environmental protection, fuel storage, waste disposal

  • Site Layout Drawing (Figure 6.1)

    • Number, size, location of buildings

    • Fence-lines; exit/entry control points

    • Roads, parking, traffic and walking patterns, signage

    • Specialized, but unsheltered areas


Technical Planning

  • Engineering problems requiring specialized training, solved by

    • Contractor personnel

    • Consulting engineering firm

    • Equipment provider (e.g., leased cranes)

  • Construction in difficult environments

    • Downtown areas

    • Waterways or underwater

    • Across gorges, etc.

  • Installation of process equipment

    • Size and weight implications

    • Long-lead (late arrival) implications

  • Hazardous materials use, or disposal

  • Etc.


Personnel Planning

  • Early identification of the crafts, levels of skill within the craft, and numbers needed

  • Timing: When does the project plan say they are needed?

    • Ramp up?

    • Ramp down?

    • Share with other projects in prime contractor’s portfolio?

  • Screening, interviews, drug testing, hiring to match needs

  • Consistent wages and benefits for hourly personnel

    • Consistency on the site

    • Consistency with competing opportunities off-site

  • Training programs (skill, safety rules, perhaps English)

  • Housing and transportation may be required


Safety Planning

  • Construction is inherently dangerous; safety must be planned

  • The safety manager (or committee) can develop a safety program, consistent with OSHA regulations, but managers/personnel make it effective (or not)

  • Foremen have a particularly important role

    • Assure employees wear personal protective equipment (PPE) and use other safety equipment appropriately

    • Emphasize safety first, productivity second

    • Notice and correct unsafe acts, perhaps apply penalties

    • Quick actions on unsafe conditions (environment or equipment)

  • Emergency procedures must be planned, communicated, and practiced

  • There are standard, engineered solutions to many construction site hazards; yet each project may require something unique

  • You will learn much more in CE 464 Safety Engineering


Quality Planning

  • There is an inherent conflict between achieving schedule and the quality of workmanship or overall work results

  • Quality of workmanship in crafts is achieved when

    • The management (through foremen) emphasizes and expects quality in every job

    • The management provides the appropriate drawings, instructions, materials, equipment, training, etc. for the worker to produce quality; and the worker gets feedback

    • The worker is motivated to meet expectations

  • Quality planning especially applied to item 2 above, so e.g. if the worker is expected to mix a batch of concrete, he would have the “recipe” and instructions, the proper materials and equipment, know how to do the steps safely, and then have a way of knowing the batch meets specifications

  • Quality planning applies to technical and business processes as well, at the contractor and in how contractor will manage quality of supplied materials and subcontracted work


Material Ordering and Expediting

  • Material items and quantities were “take-offs” during the bidding process

  • Material delivery lead times determine the order in which purchase orders are prepared

    • Delivery dates are specified on the order

    • Quantity and quality specifications go along with drawings (if necessary) to the supplier

  • Sometimes, the supplier’s raw materials and fabrication process are subject to audit; samples and testing may be specified to assure quality prior to producing the items in quantity

  • Shipping arrangements and arrival dates are coordinated

  • Any potential delay in manufacturing or shipping requires prompt action, first by expeditor and if necessary by program manager


Material Handling, Storage, and Protection

  • Arrivals of material on-site should be planned

    • A specific worker should handle the receipt of materials

    • Purchase order is used to check identity and quantity of items

    • Notes are taken on “not correct , short, or damaged” materials

    • Unloading equipment and the designated on-site storage location, unless materials go directly to workface

  • Inventory control procedure are used to track quantities and location of all on-site materials; helps avoid assignment of materials to wrong installation, and also can be used to control accessibility issues

  • The fewer intermediate moves (put down, pick up, move), the better for both material quality and workplace productivity


Equipment Planning

  • Major equipment items were identified in the bidding process

  • The project schedule indicates when each is needed

  • The company decided whether to buy, lease, or rent the equipment during the bidding process

  • Operational planning would detail:

    • The coverage (or spread) of each equipment item at site

    • The roads or fixed position it will operate on, and any necessary preparation

    • Plans for fueling & operators based on operating hours

  • Maintenance planning would detail:

    • The maintenance facility and equipment

    • A preventive maintenance plan with staffing

    • Spare/repair parts with staffing, or outsourcing plan


Assembly Process Planning

  • Construction projects are one-of-a-kind (one-off), but assembly processes can be planned to gain maximum efficiency

    • Subassemblies can be prefabricated

    • Materials can be stored close to their point of use, and moved into place mechanically

    • Power fastening systems

  • Simplify

    • The drawings

    • Work instructions

    • Processes

    • Material flow from stores to processes, and between processes

    • Joining or fastening steps

    • Checking for correct assembly


Weekly Production Planning

  • Every foreman must do, or have done for him

  • Next week’s work is identified from a project schedule, perhaps in a meeting or communication with a higher level manager (see Figure 6.3)

  • Checks are made for

    • Drawings (latest version? changes approved? sequenced in the order the work will be done?)

    • Special tools or equipment: will they be available?

    • Required materials; are they on-site? where located and accessible? Also, support materials?

    • Work space condition: access, free of clutter, other crafts to be present, supporting utilities, sufficient lighting?

    • Safety hazards to be resolved; safety equipment available?


Other Visual Aids for Production Planning

  • Production Checklists (see Figure 6.2)

  • Look-ahead Schedules

    • 4-6 week rolling schedule for PM and field superintendent

    • 7day look-ahead schedule (foreman’s plan) with dates, workers, and manhours planned for each task

    • Personnel assignments (persons assigned to activities, or split between several; persons assigned to tasks as in Figure 6.3)

    • Site maps with key equipment and work crew locations, updated whenever there is a move


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