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Quasi & Non-Experimental Designs

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Quasi & Non-Experimental Designs. Quasi-Experimental designs: Not quite true experiments because the different groups/conditions are not created by __________________. Groups or conditions are defined by _____________ variable or a ______ variable.

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Quasi & Non-Experimental Designs

Quasi-Experimental designs: Not quite true experiments because the different groups/conditions are not created by __________________. Groups or conditions are defined by _____________ variable or a ______ variable.

Non-Experimental designs – do not allow you to rule out many threats to _______________.

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Quasi & Non-Experimental Designs

  • Those using ____ group, compare behavior across _____:
  • Time-series designs (quasi-experimental)
  • One group pretest-posttest (non-experimental)
  • Longitudinal design (non-experimental
  • Those using multiple, ____________ groups:
  • Pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design (quasi-experimental)
  • Posttest-only control group design (Static-group design) (non-experimental)
  • Differential (Causal-comparative) design (non-experimental)
  • Cross-sectional design (non-experimental)
when would you use a quasi experimental design
When would you use a quasi-experimental design?
  • When you want to investigate a relationship but cannot create ________ assign groups
  • It is not _________ to create randomly assigned groups
pretest posttest nonequivalent control group design
Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent Control-Group Design
  • Definition: A quasi-experimental design in which behavior in two _______________groups is measured pre and post-IV
  • No random __________ and ___________
  • Because you measure behavior before treatment you can evaluate group equivalence - it reduces the threat of _______________
    • e.g., Effects of Flexible vs. fixed work hours on productivity in two factories
    • e.g., Effects of Home-based vs. School-based treatment on problem behavior
posttest only static group design
Posttest Only (Static) Group Design
  • No random selection and assignment
  • 2 __________________, e.g., children in 2 clinics
  • Groups should be ______
  • Susceptible to internal validity threats, e.g., assignment bias (selection threat) - group assignment is _______
    • Example: effects of peer tutoring in two classrooms
time series design
Time-Series Design
  • Definition: A quasi experimental design in which behavior in one group of participants is measured across time _______________ an IV is implemented.
  • ___________________ control for multiple threats to internal validity
  • Allows you to evaluate _________ across time
  • Called ___________________ when the IV is not created by the experimenter
  • Called a time series design with _______________if the treatment is repeatedly presented across multiple groups.
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Intact Group of Participants

Measurement

of DV

Measurement

of DV

Measurement

of DV

Measurement

of DV

Measurement

of DV

Experimental

Condition

____________ Design

time series design1
Time-Series Design

Example: Effects of anti-smoking campaign on smoking frequency

No ______ group – hard to tell if campaign was effective

Time Series – Effect was just part of periodic ____________

Time Series – Effect was just part of downward ________

Time Series – Effect occurs only after ____________

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Group at

Time 1

(e.g., 10 yrs)

Group at

Time 1

(e.g., 20 yrs)

Group at

Time 1

(e.g., 40 yrs)

Developmental Research Designs – study age-related changes in behavior

Longitudinal design

  • Measuring a variable in individuals over an ___________________
  • Like a time-series design with no _______________
  • Can determine how an individual _________
  • No cohort effects
  • Very _____________, expensive
  • Problems with _____, ________
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One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design

1 naturally occurring group

Pretest and postest

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One Group Pretest-Posttest Design

  • Observation made in ____ group before and after treatment
  • No attempt is made to control for many threats to ________________
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