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Types of Relationships. Social scientists are interested in discovering functional relationships between variables. In particular, researchers look for: correlations (association, covariation) among vaariables differences between groups or conditions. The nature of causation.

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Types of relationships
Types of Relationships

  • Social scientists are interested in discovering functional relationships between variables.

  • In particular, researchers look for:

    • correlations (association, covariation) among vaariables

    • differences between groups or conditions


The nature of causation
The nature of causation

  • Cause-effect relationships--causation is always inferred, never directly observed

  • “functional” relationships

    • one thing correlates with, or is associated with another (correlation)

    • one thing predicts or explains the amount of variance in another (analysis of variance)

    • one thing has a direct effect on another (path analysis, multiple regression)


Graphic representations of relationships
Graphic Representations of Relationships

(dependent

variable)

Note: “3/4 rule”

the convention is

to make the Y axis

3/4 of the length

of the x axis

Y-axis

(independent variable)

X-axis


Correlations
Correlations

  • displaying correlations using a scattergram

  • linear relationship

    • can be positive or negative

  • curvilinear relationship

    • also known as nonmonotonic relationships, quadratic trends, “u-shaped” or “inverted-u”

    • requires a minimum of three levels of the variable being investigated

  • no correlation

  • spurious effect



Illustration of scatterplots
Illustration of Scatterplots breaks?

  • Scatterplots that are closer to a straight line have correlations closer to +1.0 or -1.0

  • Must have interval or ratio data

  • Correlation does not prove causation


Linear versus curvilinear relationships
Linear versus curvilinear relationships breaks?

Linear relationship

Curvilinear relationship


Differences between groups or conditions
Differences Between Groups breaks?or Conditions

  • main effect (changes produced by one independent variable alone)

    • one-way interaction

  • interaction effect (changes produces by independent variables acting together, or in concert

    • two-way interaction

    • three-way interaction


Interpersonal touch social labeling and the foot in the door effect

touch breaks?

no touch

interpersonal touch, social labeling, and the foot-in-the-door effect

positive

FITD

.15

.40

negative

FITD

.45

.25


Communicator physical attractiveness and persuasion
communicator physical attractiveness and persuasion breaks?

attractive criminal

unattractive criminal

swindler

4.35

5.45

2.80

5.20

burglar


Non significant interaction
non-significant-interaction breaks?

A characteristic feature of non-significant interaction effects is that the lines are parallel, or nearly parallel



Potentially significant interaction disordinal or crossed
potentially significant interaction breaks?(disordinal or “crossed”)



Illustration of an interaction effect
Illustration of an interaction effect breaks?

evidence quality

low high

high quality

evidence

Source Credibility

low high

Attitude change

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

low quality

evidence

low high

Source Credibility


Illustration of an interaction effect1
Illustration of an interaction effect breaks?

Easy test

Test score

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Hard test

500

900


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