# Types of Relationships - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Types of Relationships. Social scientists are interested in discovering functional relationships between variables. In particular, researchers look for: correlations (association, covariation) among vaariables differences between groups or conditions. The nature of causation.

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Types of Relationships

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### Types of Relationships

• Social scientists are interested in discovering functional relationships between variables.

• In particular, researchers look for:

• correlations (association, covariation) among vaariables

• differences between groups or conditions

### The nature of causation

• Cause-effect relationships--causation is always inferred, never directly observed

• “functional” relationships

• one thing correlates with, or is associated with another (correlation)

• one thing predicts or explains the amount of variance in another (analysis of variance)

• one thing has a direct effect on another (path analysis, multiple regression)

### Graphic Representations of Relationships

(dependent

variable)

Note: “3/4 rule”

the convention is

to make the Y axis

3/4 of the length

of the x axis

Y-axis

(independent variable)

X-axis

### Correlations

• displaying correlations using a scattergram

• linear relationship

• can be positive or negative

• curvilinear relationship

• also known as nonmonotonic relationships, quadratic trends, “u-shaped” or “inverted-u”

• requires a minimum of three levels of the variable being investigated

• no correlation

• spurious effect

### Illustration of Scatterplots

• Scatterplots that are closer to a straight line have correlations closer to +1.0 or -1.0

• Must have interval or ratio data

• Correlation does not prove causation

### Linear versus curvilinear relationships

Linear relationship

Curvilinear relationship

### Differences Between Groupsor Conditions

• main effect (changes produced by one independent variable alone)

• one-way interaction

• interaction effect (changes produces by independent variables acting together, or in concert

• two-way interaction

• three-way interaction

touch

no touch

## interpersonal touch, social labeling, and the foot-in-the-door effect

positive

FITD

.15

.40

negative

FITD

.45

.25

### communicator physical attractiveness and persuasion

attractive criminal

unattractive criminal

swindler

4.35

5.45

2.80

5.20

burglar

### non-significant-interaction

A characteristic feature of non-significant interaction effects is that the lines are parallel, or nearly parallel

### Illustration of an interaction effect

evidence quality

low high

high quality

evidence

Source Credibility

low high

Attitude change

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

low quality

evidence

low high

Source Credibility

### Illustration of an interaction effect

Easy test

Test score

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Hard test

500

900