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计算机应用基础. 计算机基础知识. 教学目的. 电子计算机( electronic computer )俗称电脑,是 20 世纪科学技术的卓越成就之一。计算机科学技术及其应用技术的高速发展,在世界范围内形成了一场信息革命。计算机的发展扩展了计算机的应用领域,而计算机的应用反过来又促进了计算机的发展。 通过本章的学习,使读者了解计算机的概念、发展、特点、应用领域、计算机中信息的表示。. A.1 计算机基本概念 A.1.1 计算机的概念 A.1.2 计算机的发展 A.1.3 计算机的分类 A.1.4 计算机的特点 A.1.5 计算机应用领域

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electronic computer20


A.1

A.1.1

A.1.2

A.1.3

A.1.4

A.1.5

A.2

A.2.1

A.2.2

A.2.3


A.1

20401946John W.MauchlyJ.Presper Eckert ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)170m2 ,18800,


A.1.1


A.1.1

5


A.1.2


A.1.2

19461957

19581964


A.1.2

19651970


A.1.2

1970

Large Scale IntegrationLSI1000~10000(Very Large Scale IntegrationVLSI)10000


A.1.2

.


A.1.3

1.

Digital ComputerAnalog ComputerHybrid Computer

(1) 01

(2)

(3)


A.1.3

2.

(General Purpose Computer)

(Special Purpose Computer)

(1)

(2)


A.1.3

3.

/

(1) Super Computer

1MBGB

I IIIIIiCluster1800

(2) /Mainframe


A.1.3

(3) Mini Computer

/

(4) Micro Computer

/PC(Personal Computer)


A.1.3

5Workstation

/

6Server


A.1.4

1.

2.


A.1.4

3.

4.


A.1.5

CAD/CAM

CAI


A.1.5

1.


A.1.5

2.


A.1.5

3.

4.


A.1.5

5.

Computer Aided DesignCADComputer Aided ManufacturingCAMComputer Integrated Manufacturing SystemCIMSComputer Aided Instruction CAI

(1) CAD

CADCAD


A.1.5

(2) CAM

CAMCADCAMCADCAM

(3) CIMS

CIMSCIMSCIMS

(4) CAI

CAIInternetCAIInternetWeb


A.1.5

6.

Multimedia.


A.2


A.2.1

6060160117711212


A.2.1

1.

1. 0123456789;

2.

3.

10100,101,102,,76543.82

7104+6 103+5 102+4 101+3100+810-1+210-2


A.2.1

3

(1)100-9

(2)19

(3)


A.2.1

NN,NN-1NA

A=AnAn-1An-2A1A0A-1A-2AA-m

A= AnAn-1An-2A1A0A-1A-2A-m

=AnNn+An-1Nn-1+ An-2Nn-2++ A1N1+ A0N0

+A-1N-1+A-mN-m


A.2.1

2.

01223

(1) 01

(2) 1,10

(3) (1101.1011)2

(1101.1011)2= 123 + 122 + 021 + 120 + 12-1 + 02-2 + 12-3+ 12-4


A.2.1

21,22

1101.1011=110.1101110

1011.011=10110.111/10

10210

1010


A.2.1

(1)

000 101 011 1110(2)

000 100 010 111


1

0

1

1

0

22

+

+

0

1

1

0

1

13

35

1

1

2

1

2

0

0

2

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1


A.2.1

3.

0123456788( 6320.127 )8( 6320.127 )8=683+382+281+080

+18-1+28-2+78-3


A.2.1

4.

0123456789ABCDEFABCDEF1011121314151616

37B516

( 37B5 )16=3163+7162+11161+5160


10

2

8

16

0~9

01

0~7

0~9ABCDEF

A.2.1


A.2.2


1.

(1)

0


2

1

1

2

3

1

3

9

69

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

0

1

0

0

0

4

17

2

34

1

8

10001011


1

2

3

77

( 77 )10=( 115 )8


1

2

3

77

( 77 )10=( 4D )8


(2)

0


1

2

3

2

1

.375

2

1011

0

.75

2

1

.5

2

1

.0

.6875


1-40.625

0.6252

( 0.625 )10=( 0.101 )2


0.32

0.322

( 0.32 )10=( 0.0101 )2


1-6 77.625

( 77 )10=( 1001101 )2

( 0.625 )10=( 0.101 )2

( 77.625 )10=( 1001101. 101 )2


2.

(F)x= a1xn-1+a2xn-2+ + am-1x1+ amx0+ am+1x-1+

a1a2am-1 amxn


1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

128

27

64

26

32

25

24

16

23

8

22

4

2

21

1

20

+

128+32+16+4+2+1= 181


0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

84

168

42



1

8

3

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

2

6

7


1

8

3

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

B

7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


0000

0

0

0

1001

11

9

9

0001

1

1

1

1010

12

10

A

0010

2

2

2

1011

13

11

B

0011

3

3

3

1100

14

12

C

0100

4

4

4

1101

15

13

D

0101

5

5

5

1110

16

14

E

0110

6

6

6

1111

17

15

F

0111

7

7

7

10000

20

16

10

1000

10

8

8


A.2.3


BCD

BCDBinary Coded Decimal

84218421411442322 21208421


BCD

1-143879BCD

3879BCD0011 1000 0111 1001


BCD

1-15 BCD1001 0111 0101 0110

BCD1001 0111 0101 01109756


ASCII

ASCIIAmerican Standard Code For Information Interchange

ASCII1287(27=128)ASCII773b7b6b54(b4b3b2b1)7ASCII1-3ASCII8ASCII0111000BASCII1000010aASCII1100001


ASCII

100 0001 = 65


ASCII

3000001NUMSTXETXEOTCRCANSPDEL

8ASCIIb87ASCII107ASCII11ASCII



1980GB2312-80676368237553008682


2ASCIIASCII701



24242424576


2424

  • 2424576576/8=72

  • 676372X6763


16162424323210

161632242472




IBM198120


B.1

B.2

B.3

B.4


B.1

PC(Personal Computer)


B.1

5CPUI/O


(CPU)

()

()


B.1

CPU


B.2

I/OCPU


B.2.1

B.2.2


B.2.1

CPU/I/OCPU

1. CPU

CPU(Central Processing Unit)CPUCPUCPU

CPUPentium III800MHZ3264


CPU

CPUIntel()AMD()VIA()IntelCPUIntelAMDVIACPU


CPU


COMS


Read Only Memory ROMRandom Access Memory RAMBIOS ROM

(Bit)ByteKBMB(GB)Bit8BitByteByte832M64M128M256M

1KB=1024B 1MB=1024KB 1GB=1024MB


CPUI/ODB(Data Bus)AB(Address Bus)CB(Control Bus)

:

(1) ISA

ISA(Industry Standard Architecture),AT1680286

(2)EISA

EISAExtension Industry Standard Architecture, ISA32


(3)VESA

VESAVideo Electronics Standard Architecture, VL, 32,386486

(4)PCI

PCIPeripheral Component Interconnect, 32,64 34Pentium

(5)USB

USBUniversal Serial BusIntelUSB


I/O

I/OInputOutputLPT()COM()PS/2USBI/O


B.2.2


<>


1.

  • 1.

    2.

    3. 12F1-F12

    4




F1F12Esc13EscF1F12



Num Lock,2-10

*.


Shift

Caps Lock

I

Backspace

Enter

Tab


Alt

Alt+Fn

Ctrl

Ctrl+P

Ctrl+C

Ctrl+S

Ctrl+Alt+Del

CtrlAltDel


Page Down

Del

Ins



3D

Mouse


1963


(Mouse)

<>



""





""


CCD






(Monitor)

CRTLCDCRTCRTLCDCRT

CRT

LCD


(Monitor)

CRT

CRT25616323

300200600350102476812801024




24


LED3

CAD



<>

<>

<>

  • Floppy

  • Hard-disk

  • :CD-ROM




  • 10~4020%~80%


  • 1.44MB3.5


1.44MB3.5


= ///= 2 1880 512


  • 512512


1-5 3.5HD



0101

CD-ROM650M

CD-R,

CD-RW,CD-RW


DVD

DVD


-

Flash MemoryUSB USBUSBUSB2GB100


IDEUSBIEE1394USB/IEE13945GB,GB


CCDUSBCCD


2.3


2.3.1

Software


:


  • Operating System OS

  • CPU3Windows 2000



(Machine Language

  • 01


(Assemble Language)

MOVADD


(High Level Language)

Basicinputprint+-*/

BasicFortranPascalCC++Java






1.

Microsoft WordWPS

2.

Microsoft Excel

3.

(CAD)VLSICADAutoCAD


4.

Adobe Photoshop

5.

WinampAdobe PremierUleadFlashMaya3DMAX3D




End


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