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计算机应用基础 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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计算机应用基础. 计算机基础知识. 教学目的. 电子计算机( electronic computer )俗称电脑,是 20 世纪科学技术的卓越成就之一。计算机科学技术及其应用技术的高速发展,在世界范围内形成了一场信息革命。计算机的发展扩展了计算机的应用领域,而计算机的应用反过来又促进了计算机的发展。 通过本章的学习,使读者了解计算机的概念、发展、特点、应用领域、计算机中信息的表示。. A.1 计算机基本概念 A.1.1 计算机的概念 A.1.2 计算机的发展 A.1.3 计算机的分类 A.1.4 计算机的特点 A.1.5 计算机应用领域

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计算机应用基础

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electronic computer20


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A.1

A.1.1

A.1.2

A.1.3

A.1.4

A.1.5

A.2

A.2.1

A.2.2

A.2.3


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A.1

20401946John W.MauchlyJ.Presper Eckert ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)170m2 ,18800,


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A.1.1


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A.1.1

5


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A.1.2


A 1 2

A.1.2

19461957

19581964


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A.1.2

19651970


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A.1.2

1970

Large Scale IntegrationLSI1000~10000(Very Large Scale IntegrationVLSI)10000


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A.1.2

.


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A.1.3

1.

Digital ComputerAnalog ComputerHybrid Computer

(1) 01

(2)

(3)


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A.1.3

2.

(General Purpose Computer)

(Special Purpose Computer)

(1)

(2)


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A.1.3

3.

/

(1) Super Computer

1MBGB

I IIIIIiCluster1800

(2) /Mainframe


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A.1.3

(3) Mini Computer

/

(4) Micro Computer

/PC(Personal Computer)


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A.1.3

5Workstation

/

6Server


A 1 4

A.1.4

1.

2.


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A.1.4

3.

4.


A 1 5

A.1.5

CAD/CAM

CAI


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A.1.5

1.


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A.1.5

2.


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A.1.5

3.

4.


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A.1.5

5.

Computer Aided DesignCADComputer Aided ManufacturingCAMComputer Integrated Manufacturing SystemCIMSComputer Aided Instruction CAI

(1) CAD

CADCAD


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A.1.5

(2) CAM

CAMCADCAMCADCAM

(3) CIMS

CIMSCIMSCIMS

(4) CAI

CAIInternetCAIInternetWeb


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A.1.5

6.

Multimedia.


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A.2


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A.2.1

6060160117711212


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A.2.1

1.

1. 0123456789;

2.

3.

10100,101,102,,76543.82

7104+6 103+5 102+4 101+3100+810-1+210-2


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A.2.1

3

(1)100-9

(2)19

(3)


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A.2.1

NN,NN-1NA

A=AnAn-1An-2A1A0A-1A-2AA-m

A= AnAn-1An-2A1A0A-1A-2A-m

=AnNn+An-1Nn-1+ An-2Nn-2++ A1N1+ A0N0

+A-1N-1+A-mN-m


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A.2.1

2.

01223

(1) 01

(2) 1,10

(3) (1101.1011)2

(1101.1011)2= 123 + 122 + 021 + 120 + 12-1 + 02-2 + 12-3+ 12-4


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A.2.1

21,22

1101.1011=110.1101110

1011.011=10110.111/10

10210

1010


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A.2.1

(1)

000 101 011 1110(2)

000 100 010 111


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1

0

1

1

0

22

+

+

0

1

1

0

1

13

35

1

1

2

1

2

0

0

2

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1


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A.2.1

3.

0123456788( 6320.127 )8( 6320.127 )8=683+382+281+080

+18-1+28-2+78-3


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A.2.1

4.

0123456789ABCDEFABCDEF1011121314151616

37B516

( 37B5 )16=3163+7162+11161+5160


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10

2

8

16

0~9

01

0~7

0~9ABCDEF

A.2.1


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A.2.2


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1.

(1)

0


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2

1

1

2

3

1

3

9

69

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

0

1

0

0

0

4

17

2

34

1

8

10001011


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1

2

3

77

( 77 )10=( 115 )8


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1

2

3

77

( 77 )10=( 4D )8


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(2)

0


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1

2

3

2

1

.375

2

1011

0

.75

2

1

.5

2

1

.0

.6875


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1-40.625

0.6252

( 0.625 )10=( 0.101 )2


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0.32

0.322

( 0.32 )10=( 0.0101 )2


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1-6 77.625

( 77 )10=( 1001101 )2

( 0.625 )10=( 0.101 )2

( 77.625 )10=( 1001101. 101 )2


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2.

(F)x= a1xn-1+a2xn-2+ + am-1x1+ amx0+ am+1x-1+

a1a2am-1 amxn


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1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

128

27

64

26

32

25

24

16

23

8

22

4

2

21

1

20

+

128+32+16+4+2+1= 181


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0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

84

168

42


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1

8

3

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

2

6

7


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1

8

3

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

B

7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


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0000

0

0

0

1001

11

9

9

0001

1

1

1

1010

12

10

A

0010

2

2

2

1011

13

11

B

0011

3

3

3

1100

14

12

C

0100

4

4

4

1101

15

13

D

0101

5

5

5

1110

16

14

E

0110

6

6

6

1111

17

15

F

0111

7

7

7

10000

20

16

10

1000

10

8

8


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A.2.3


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BCD

BCDBinary Coded Decimal

84218421411442322 21208421


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BCD

1-143879BCD

3879BCD0011 1000 0111 1001


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BCD

1-15 BCD1001 0111 0101 0110

BCD1001 0111 0101 01109756


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ASCII

ASCIIAmerican Standard Code For Information Interchange

ASCII1287(27=128)ASCII773b7b6b54(b4b3b2b1)7ASCII1-3ASCII8ASCII0111000BASCII1000010aASCII1100001


Ascii

ASCII

100 0001 = 65


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ASCII

3000001NUMSTXETXEOTCRCANSPDEL

8ASCIIb87ASCII107ASCII11ASCII


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1980GB2312-80676368237553008682


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2ASCIIASCII701


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24242424576


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2424

  • 2424576576/8=72

  • 676372X6763


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16162424323210

161632242472


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IBM198120


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B.1

B.2

B.3

B.4


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B.1

PC(Personal Computer)


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B.1

5CPUI/O


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(CPU)

()

()


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B.1

CPU


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B.2

I/OCPU


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B.2.1

B.2.2


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B.2.1

CPU/I/OCPU

1. CPU

CPU(Central Processing Unit)CPUCPUCPU

CPUPentium III800MHZ3264


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CPU

CPUIntel()AMD()VIA()IntelCPUIntelAMDVIACPU


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CPU


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COMS


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Read Only Memory ROMRandom Access Memory RAMBIOS ROM

(Bit)ByteKBMB(GB)Bit8BitByteByte832M64M128M256M

1KB=1024B 1MB=1024KB 1GB=1024MB


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CPUI/ODB(Data Bus)AB(Address Bus)CB(Control Bus)

:

(1) ISA

ISA(Industry Standard Architecture),AT1680286

(2)EISA

EISAExtension Industry Standard Architecture, ISA32


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(3)VESA

VESAVideo Electronics Standard Architecture, VL, 32,386486

(4)PCI

PCIPeripheral Component Interconnect, 32,64 34Pentium

(5)USB

USBUniversal Serial BusIntelUSB


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I/O

I/OInputOutputLPT()COM()PS/2USBI/O


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B.2.2


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<>


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1.

  • 1.

    2.

    3. 12F1-F12

    4


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F1F12Esc13EscF1F12


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Num Lock,2-10

*.


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Shift

Caps Lock

I

Backspace

Enter

Tab


6431880

Alt

Alt+Fn

Ctrl

Ctrl+P

Ctrl+C

Ctrl+S

Ctrl+Alt+Del

CtrlAltDel


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Page Down

Del

Ins


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3D

Mouse


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1963


Mouse

(Mouse)

<>


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""


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""


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CCD


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Monitor

(Monitor)

CRTLCDCRTCRTLCDCRT

CRT

LCD


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(Monitor)

CRT

CRT25616323

300200600350102476812801024


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24


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LED3

CAD


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<>

<>

<>

  • Floppy

  • Hard-disk

  • :CD-ROM


6431880


6431880


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  • 10~4020%~80%


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  • 1.44MB3.5


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1.44MB3.5


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= ///= 2 1880 512


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  • 512512


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1-5 3.5HD


6431880


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0101

CD-ROM650M

CD-R,

CD-RW,CD-RW


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DVD

DVD


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-

Flash MemoryUSB USBUSBUSB2GB100


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IDEUSBIEE1394USB/IEE13945GB,GB


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CCDUSBCCD


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2.3


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2.3.1

Software


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:


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  • Operating System OS

  • CPU3Windows 2000


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(Machine Language

  • 01


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(Assemble Language)

MOVADD


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(High Level Language)

Basicinputprint+-*/

BasicFortranPascalCC++Java


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1.

Microsoft WordWPS

2.

Microsoft Excel

3.

(CAD)VLSICADAutoCAD


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4.

Adobe Photoshop

5.

WinampAdobe PremierUleadFlashMaya3DMAX3D


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End


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