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History of the IBO. International Baccalaureate Organization. The rise of the International School. International schools - emerged in various countries for expatriate populations: UN agencies and international companies - market-driven, ideologically-driven

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History of the IBO

International Baccalaureate Organization


The rise of the International School

International schools

- emerged in various countries for expatriate populations: UN agencies and international companies

- market-driven, ideologically-driven

1924 - International School of Geneva: ILO, League of Nations

- Yokohama International School

1947 - United Nations International School (UNIS), New York

1962 - Atlantic College, Wales: (United World College)


Early Calls for an International Diploma/Curricula

1925 - maturité internationale, Adolphe Ferrière, International School of Geneva

1946 - a UNESCO international diploma: Collège Cévénol and French Minister for Education, André Philip

1949 - Conference of internationally-minded schools (CIS), convened by UNESCO: international diploma

1950 - Course for teachers interested in international education (organised by CIS) 50 participants from 17 countries including Australia, Ceylon, India, Pakistan, USA: First “definition” of international education

1951 - International Schools Association (ISA) established by parents (International School of Geneva) employed in the UN organizations Russell Cook (WHO), Chair 1952 - 1970

1959 - European Baccalaureate and mobility (first European schools created 1957)

1962- dawning of the IB Diploma Programme at the I.S. of Geneva


Development of the IB Diploma Programme

Why?

- to provide a world perspective

- to promote intercultural understanding

- to develop international citizenship

- to promote critical thinking skills

- to facilitate access to higher education world wide

Exploratory period1962-66

1962 - ISA conference of teachers of social studies in international schools, Geneva (Ecolint)

  - Contemporary history syllabus and exam developed (Leach)

  - report of the ISA consultant Bob Leach : “international baccalaureate”

1964 - 74: curriculum development and student assessment work - 58 subject panel meetings

1964 - International Schools Examination Syndicate (ISES)


Development of the IB Diploma Programme

  • Trial examinations 1967-70

  • 1967 - IB Office created (registered in 1968 in Geneva)

  • - first Council of Foundation meets

  • In 1968 the following schools participated in trial examinations:

  • Atlantic College, Wales

  • International School of Geneva

  • United Nations International School (UNIS), New York

  • International College, Beirut

  • International High School, Copenhagen

  • Iranzamin International School, Teheran

  • North Manchester High School for Girls

  • Experimental period 1970-76

  • - first official examinations 1971

  • - new sources of funding were needed to go beyond 1976

  • - growth of schools: 12 in 1971 to 37 in 1976 


Development of the IB Diploma Programme

  • Experimental period 1970-76

  • - first official examinations 1971

  • - new sources of funding were needed to go beyond 1976

  • - growth of schools: 12 in 1971 to 37 in 1976

  • Standing Conference of Governments(SCG)

  • 1976 - first inter-governmental conference The Hague

  • 1978 - second inter-governmental conference London, after which SCG established; member governments gave an annual donation to the IBO

  • Heads Standing Conference (HSC)

  • 1977 - HSC formed in Geneva to seek annual contributions from IB schools


  • Development of the IB Diploma Programme

    Standing Conference of Governments(SCG)

    1976 - first inter-governmental conference The Hague

    1978 - second inter-governmental conference London, after which SCG established; member governments gave an annual donation to the IBO

    Heads Standing Conference (HSC)

    1977 - HSC formed in Geneva to seek annual contributions from IB schools

    New programmes

    1992 - Middle Years Programme (MYP)

    1997 - Primary Years Programme (PYP)


    Funding

    UNESCO

    - for initial meetings of the CIS (1949) and ISA (1951)

    - for a number of conferences to discuss international education, notably those of 1950 and 1962 in Geneva

    - through a series of contracts from 1964 to 1979, for the development of international curricula

    Total support over this period: US$ 40,000

    Ford Foundation

    1955 - development of international curricula

    at UNIS, US$85,000

    1966 - US$ 300,000 to ISES

    1968 - US$200,000 to IBO

    20thC Fund

    1964 - US$75,000 to ISES

    1968 - US$75,000 to IBO


    Funding

    Other donors1960s- 70sincluded:

    Dulverton Trust £12,000 x 6 years

    Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation US$12,000 x 3 years

    Wenner Gren Foundation US$6,000 x 3 years

    UK Dept. of Education and Science £4,800 x 4 years

    Shah of Iran US$100,000


    Key People

    Desmond Cole-Baker - Director International School of Geneva (Ecolint), 1961 - 1968

    John Goormaghtigh

    - Director of the European Office of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

    - Treasurer of ISA, 1957-62

    - Chairman of the Board of the International School of Geneva, 1960-66

     - Founding President of the IBO Council of Foundation, 1968-81

    Bob Leach, Ruth Bonner, Gérard Renaud, Nansi Poirel - staff International School of Geneva (Ecolint)

    Alec Peterson - Director of Department of Education, Oxford University Oxford Research Unit, 1967-74


    Key People

    Presidents of the Council of Foundation

    1968 - 81 John Goormaghtigh

    1981 - 84 Seydou Madani Sy

    1984 - 90 Piet Gathier

    1990 - 96 Thomas Hagoort

    1996 - 97 Bengt Thelin

    1997- 2003 Greg Crafter

    2003 - Monique Seefried

    IB Organization Director Generals

    1968 - 76 Alec Peterson

    1977 - 83 Gérard Renaud

    1983 - 98 Roger Peel

    1998 - 99 Derek Blackman

    1999 - 2005 George Walker

    2006 - Jeffrey Beard


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