Optimum water management on soybean under deficit irrigation
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OPTIMUM WATER MANAGEMENT ON SOYBEAN UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION (ダイズの節水栽培における最適灌漑法). RADEN ACHMAD BUSTOMI ROSADI. National consumption. 2.68. 2.02. production. 1.38. 0.71. import. 1.31. 1.30. (65 %). (48 %). ( in million tons). Background.

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Optimum water management on soybean under deficit irrigation

OPTIMUM WATER MANAGEMENT ON SOYBEAN UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION(ダイズの節水栽培における最適灌漑法)

RADEN ACHMAD BUSTOMI ROSADI


Background

National consumption UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

2.68

2.02

production

1.38

0.71

import

1.31

1.30

(65 %)

(48 %)

(in million tons)

Background

Soybean in Indonesia

1999

2004

Major problem of Soybean production :

Availability of water (limiting factor)

Implementing deficit irrigation: inevitable


Objective
Objective UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION :

  • To determine the critical water content (c) and water stress coefficient (Ks) of soybean plant to obtain of optimum water management.

  • To investigate the influence of deficit irrigation at individual growth stages on yield of soybean, so that the irrigation schedule for the individual growth stages can be made to ensure optimum growth and production of soybean.


Lampung Province UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

Bandarlampung

INDONESIA

MATERIAL AND METHOD

Location of the experimental site

Lampung University, Faculty of Agriculture

43 m above sea level

Period: 2000, 2001, and 2003


2000, and 2003 experiments UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

Water Deficit level

TREATMENTS

0

FC

Design experiment: Randomized block design, with 5 treatments and 4 replication

WD1 (D1)

20

WD2 (D2)

40

WD3 (D3)

Irrigation

60

WD4 (D4)

80

WD5 (D5)

Daily

100

PWP

D1 ---- D5 treatments

For 2001 experiment

% of TAW


2 weeks before harvesting

Irrigation was stopped

DAT

85

0

15

28

42

70

Seedling

Harvesting


air-dried soil UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

Soybean seed

Black plastic container (10L vol.)

7Kg air-dried soil


Evapotranspiration (ET) UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

Transpiration (T)

Gravimetric Method

Handy can

Soil water daily monitoring

Irrigation =

ET or T (previous day)


Experiments UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION


The scheme of the treatments (2001) UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION


UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATIONAgronomic variables evaluated:

  • plant height

  • leaf number

  • flower number and pod number

  • total biomasses

  • yield

  • Crop water requirement (CWR)

  • Water Use Efficiency (WUE)

  • Yield Efficiency (YE)

Statistical analysis :

}5 % level

  • F- test

  • Least Significant Different (LSD) test


Results and discussion
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION


1. Experiment period: June-sept 2000 UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

The effect of WD on leaf number

Leaf number (pieces)

WD3

start to

stress

P= 0.5

c = 30.5 % (vol)

Week


The ratio ET UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATIONa/ ETm, and water stress coefficient (Ks) in Ultisol

(p) = available water depletion fraction

*) in stress condition

Assume:The ET at WD1 was ETm

Ks =ETa/ETm or ETc adj/ ETc (Allen,1998)

The water stress coefficient (Ks) at WD3 (p=0.5) = 0.78


The effect of wd on wue and ye in ultisol
The effect of WD on WUE, and YE in UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATIONUltisol

Optimum

Yield

WD3

conserve

10.1 %

of water


Ky = 0.85 UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

The relation between relative yield decrease (1-Ya/Ym)

and relative evapotranspiration deficit (1-ETa/ETm) in Ultisol

The Ky of soybean for the entire growing period of WD = 0.85


2. Experiment period: June –Sept 2003 UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

The effect of WD on leaf area index

Leaf area index (cm2)

WD3 in stress

c= 32.7 % (vol)

WD5 in stress

c= 28.4 % (vol)

Week


The ratio T UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATIONa/ Tm, and water stress coefficient (Ks) in Andisol

*) in stress condition

WD4 = 0.52

WD5 = 0.38

The Ks average:

WD2 = 0.82

WD3= 0.68


The effect of wd on the total biomass yield cwr wue and ye in andisol
The effect of WD on the total biomass, yield, CWR, WUE, and YE in Andisol

O

p

t

i

m

u

m

yield

WD3 conserve 24.6 % of water


K YE in y=0.507

Ky=1

The relation between relative yield decreased (1-Ya/Ym)

and relative transpiration deficit (1-Ta/Tm) in Andisol

The Ky of soybean for the entire growing period of WD = 0.507


3 experiment period august october 2001
3. Experiment period: August- October 2001 YE in

Crop Water Requirement

P= 0.5

c = 26 % (vol)


The effect of available water deficit to the T YE in a/Tm

at various growth stages in Ultisol


Yield
Yield YE in

No Stress

Stress

Condition

Compared

to

WD2



The relationship between the p and YE (g/g) stages in

at the different growth stages in Ultisol


Conclusion
CONCLUSION stages in

  • The critical water content (c) of soybean:

Ultisol = 30.5% (week IV)

Andisol = 28.4 % (week V)

32.7% (week VI)

36.9% (week VIII)

  • The coefficient stress (Ks) of soybean:

Ultisol = 0.78

Andisol = 0.82 (AW deficit 20-40%)

0.68 (AW deficit 40-60%)

0.52 (AW deficit 60-80%)

0.38 (AW deficit 80-100%)

  • The yield response factor (Ky) of soybean:

Ultisol = 0.851

Andisol =0.507


The optimum yield of soybean: stages in

The deficit irrigation at 40-60% of AW deficit

conserve of water

Andisol:

Ultisol :

24.6 %

10.1%


Sensitive to water stress stages in

c = 26 %


Thank you very much stages in

Arigatou

gozaimasu


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