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Water Pollution. Ch. 20. APES. Put name on water, put on side lab bench (by other water) Get out GHG & Ozone Graphs of Tables 1 & 2. . How to Collect Water Samples. What is Water Pollution?. Change in water quality that can harm organisms or make water unfit for human uses

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APES

  • Put name on water, put on side lab bench (by other water)

  • Get out GHG & Ozone Graphs of Tables 1 & 2.



What is water pollution
What is Water Pollution?

  • Change in water quality that can harm organisms or make water unfit for human uses

  • Contamination with chemicals

  • Excessive heat


Sources of water pollution
Sources of Water Pollution

Point Source

Nonpoint Source

Broad, diffuse areas

Difficult to identify & control

Expensive to clean up

Runoff

Croplands

Urban streets

Feedlots

Parking Lots

  • Located at specific places

  • Easy to identify, monitor & regulate

    - drain pipes

    - factories

    - sewage treatment

    - underground mines

    - oil tankers


Point source of polluted water in gargas france
Point Source of Polluted Water in Gargas, France

Fig. 20-3, p. 530



Point nonpoint sources

NONPOINT SOURCES Streams

Rural homes

Cropland

Urban streets

Animal feedlot

POINT SOURCES

Suburban development

Factory

Wastewater treatment plant

Point & Nonpoint Sources


Major types of pollutants
Major Types of Pollutants Streams

  • Sewage

  • Disease Agents

  • Sediment

  • Inorganic Plant & Algal Nutrients

  • Organic Compounds

  • Inorganic Compounds

  • Radioactives

  • Thermal Pollution

Review Table 20.1!!




Major types of pollutants3
Major Types of Pollutants Streams

Turbidity: cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by suspended particles








Leading causes of water pollution
Leading Causes of Water Pollution Water

  • Agriculture activities

    • Sediment eroded from the lands

    • Fertilizers and pesticides

    • Bacteria from livestock and food processing wastes

  • Industrial facilities

  • Mining


Effects of yuck water
Effects of YUCK water Water

The World Health Organization (WHO)

  • 1.6 million people die every year, mostly under the age of 5

  • Diarrhea


How do we measure water quality
How do we measure water quality? Water

  • Using DO + BOD measurements

  • Using Coliform bacteria: Escherichia Coli tests

  • Using Chemical Analysis

    • Presence/Absence and concentration

  • Using Indicator Species

    • Macroinvertebrates

  • Using Physical Analysis

    • Turbidity – cloudiness

    • Temperature


What is dissolved oxygen
What is Dissolved Oxygen? Water

  • Amount of oxygen measured in water

  • Measured in milligrams per Liter (mg/L) OR parts per million (ppm)

  • mg/L = ppm


How do we measure water quality1
How do we measure water quality? Water

Measuring the level of Dissolved Oxygen (DO)


Dissolved oxygen do biological oxygen demand bod
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) & Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Water

  • Dissolved Oxygen – Amount of oxygen dissolved in solution

  • BOD- rate at which organisms use up oxygen in water

    • The rate of oxygen consumption in a stream is affected by: temp., pH, microorganisms, type of organic/inorganic material in water



Point source Water

Normal clean water organisms (Trout, perch, bass, mayfly, stonefly)

Pollution- tolerant fishes (carp, gar)

Fish absent, fungi, sludge worms,

bacteria (anaerobic)

Pollution- tolerant fishes (carp, gar)

Normal clean water organisms (Trout, perch, bass, mayfly, stonefly)

8 ppm

Types of organisms

8 ppm

Dissolved oxygen (ppm)

Biochemical oxygen demand

Clean Zone

Recovery Zone

Septic Zone

Decomposition Zone

Clean Zone

Fig. 20-7, p. 534


Why does dissolved oxygen decrease as biological oxygen demand increases
Why does dissolved oxygen decrease as biological oxygen demand increases?

  • Dissolved oxygen decreases when organic pollutants enter the water because bacteria uses the oxygen for decomposition.


How do we measure water quality2
How do we measure water quality? demand increases?

Presence or Absence of Harmful Pollutants

Concentration of Harmful Pollutants

Drinking water

0 colonies per 100 ml

Swimming water

200 colonies per 100 ml

HUMAN CONSUMPTION

RECREATION

Fecal Coliform Test


How do we measure water quality3
How do we measure water quality? demand increases?

  • Chemical analysis

    • Presence/Absence

    • Concentration

  • Tests

    • pH

    • Alkalinity

    • Carbon Dioxide

    • Hardness (concentrations of Ca & Mg)

    • Nitrates

    • Silicates

    • Phosphates

    • Conductivity – (Cl, N, S, P, NA, etc.)


How do we measure water quality4
How do we measure water quality? demand increases?

  • Indicator Species

    • Macro invertebrates


How do we measure water quality5
How do we measure water quality? demand increases?

  • Physical Analysis

    • Turbidity

      • Cloudiness – generally caused by phytoplankton

      • Higher turbidity = higher risk of disease

    • Temperature

      • Affects other parameters

        • DO

        • types of plants/animals


APES demand increases?

  • Turn in GHG & Ozone graphs and analysis

  • Get out Ch. 20 Water Pollution Notes


Pollution of lakes
Pollution of Lakes demand increases?

  • Less effective at diluting pollutants

    • Stratified layers

    • Little to no flow


Pollution of lakes1
Pollution of Lakes demand increases?

  • Slow Turnover

    • Flushing & changing of water temp.

  • Thermal Stratification

    • Little vertical mixing

  • Biological Magnification

    • Increase in the concentration of chemicals in organisms at successively higher trophic levels of a food chain

  • Eutrophication

    • Natural nutrient enrichment of lakes


Water demand increases?

0.000002 ppm

Phytoplankton

0.0025 ppm

Herring gull

124 ppm

Herring gull eggs

124 ppm

Zooplankton

0.123ppm

Lake trout

4.83 ppm

Rainbow smelt

1.04 ppm

Biomagnification


Cultural eutrophication too m uch of a good thing
Cultural Eutrophication: Too demand increases? Much of a Good Thing*

Caused by runoff of plant nutrients

- nitrates

- phosphates


Eutrophic lake environmental problems
Eutrophic Lake demand increases? Environmental Problems

  • excess nutrients enter water system

  • increases photosynthetic productivity

  • numbers of algae and cyanobacteria increase

  • water become cloudy (turbid) from population increase

  • populations die off and sink to bottom

  • become food for decomposers

  • decomposers  BOD but DO in waters

  • fish die off

  • other species take root in nutrient rich sediments and begin to fill in waters


Eutrophic lakes
Eutrophic Lakes demand increases?

  • Prevention

    • Remove nitrates & phosphates

    • Diversion of water

  • Clean Up

    • Remove excess weeds

    • Use herbicides & algaecides (downside? )

    • Pump in air


Oligotrophic lake
Oligotrophic Lake demand increases?

  • Low Nutrients

  • Clear Water

  • Small pop. of aquatic orgs.


Reducing surface water pollution
Reducing Surface Water Pollution demand increases?

Nonpoint Source

Point Sources

Clean Water Act

Water Quality Act

  • Reduce Runoff

  • Buffer Zone Vegetation

  • Reduce Soil Erosion


Groundwater pollution
Groundwater Pollution demand increases?


Groundwater pollution1
Groundwater Pollution demand increases?

  • It can take hundreds to thousands of years for contaminated groundwater to cleanse itself of degradablewastes.

  • Nondegradable wastes (toxic lead, arsenic, fluoride) are there permanently.

  • Slowlydegradablewastes (DDT) are there for decades.


Groundwater pollution2
Groundwater Pollution demand increases?

  • Source of drinking water

  • Common pollutants

    • Fertilizers & Pesticides

    • Gasoline

    • Organic Solvents

  • Pollutants dispersed in a widening plume

  • Pollutants fill porous rock, sand, bedrock, like water saturates a sponge


Leaking demand increases?

tank

Aquifer

Bedrock

Water

table

Groundwater

flow

Free gasoline

dissolves in

groundwater

(dissolved

phase)

Gasoline

leakage plume

(liquid phase)

Migrating

vapor phase

Water well

Contaminant plume moves

with the groundwater

Fig. 21-8, p. 502


Groundwater cannot cleanse itself very well
Groundwater Cannot Cleanse Itself Very Well demand increases?

  • Slow Flow: Contaminants not diluted

  • Less Dissolved Oxygen

  • Fewer decomposing bacteria

  • Low Temps.


Groundwater Pollution Sources demand increases?

Polluted air

Hazardous waste

injection well

Pesticides

and fertilizers

Coal strip mine runoff

Deicing road salt

Buried gasoline and solvent tanks

Cesspool, septic

tank

Pumping well

Gasoline station

Water pumping well

Waste lagoon

Sewer

Landfill

Leakage from faulty casing

Accidental spills

Discharge

Freshwater aquifer

Freshwater aquifer

Freshwater aquifer

Groundwater flow

Fig. 20-13, p. 540


Pollution prevention only effective way to protect groundwater
Pollution Prevention = Only Effective Way to Protect Groundwater!

  • Cleanup = expensive & time consuming


Groundwater pollution prevention
Groundwater Pollution Groundwater!PREVENTION

  • Monitoring aquifers

  • Leak detection systems

  • Use toxic chemical substitutes

  • Strict regulation – hazardous waste disposal

  • Storing hazardous wastes materials above ground


Water pollution oceans
Water Pollution & Oceans Groundwater!

  • 2006: State of the Marine Environment

    • 80% of marine pollution originates on land

    • Sewage

    • Coastal areas most affected

  • Deeper ocean waters

    • Dilution

    • Dispersion

    • Degradation


Industry Groundwater!

Nitrogen oxides

from autos and smokestacks, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries.

Cities

Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters; sewage adds nitrogen and phosphorus.

Urban sprawl

Bacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds and close beaches; runoff of fertilizer from lawns adds nitrogen and phosphorus.

Construction sites Sediments are washed into waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight.

Farms Runoff of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus.

Red tides Excess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxic microscopic

algae, poisoning fish

and marine mammals.

Closed

shellfish beds

Closed beach

Oxygen-depleted zone

Toxic sediments

Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders.

Oxygen-depleted zone

Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight, kill beneficial sea grasses,

use up oxygen, and degrade habitat.

Healthy zone

Clear, oxygen-rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses, and support fish.

Fig. 20-16, p. 545


Water pollution oceans1
Water Pollution & Oceans Groundwater!

  • Cruise line pollution: what is being dumped?

  • U.S. coastal waters

    • Raw sewage

    • Sewage and agricultural runoff: NO3- and PO43-

    • Harmful algal blooms

    • Oxygen-depleted zones

  • Huge mass of plastic in North Pacific Ocean



Rubber duckies lost at sea
Rubber Groundwater!Duckies Lost at Sea

  • 1992 Shipping container lost 28,000 duckies at sea (and turtles and frogs).

  • Duckies still washing ashore today


Where have the duckies traveled
Where have the Groundwater!duckies traveled?


Ocean pollution from oil
Ocean Pollution From Oil Groundwater!

  • 1989: Exxon Valdez, oil tanker

    • Rleased 41 million liters (11 mill. gallons)

    • Alaska’s Prince William Sound

  • 2010: BP explosion in the Gulf of Mexico

    • Sank rig

    • 11 crewmembers killed


Deepwater horizon blowout in the gulf of mexico april 20 2010
Deepwater Groundwater! Horizon Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, April 20, 2010

Fig. 20-18, p. 547


How do we purify water
How do we purify water? Groundwater!

  • Reservoir & purification plant

  • Process sewer water to drinking water

  • Expose clear plastic containers to sunlight (UV)

  • The lifestraw

  • PUR: Chlorine & iron sulfate powder


Laws water quality
Laws & Water Quality Groundwater!

  • 1974: U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act

    • Amended 1986 & 1996

    • 1996 amendment required discoloser to citizens of contaminated water

    • Sets max. contamination levels for any pollutants that affect human health

    • EPA determined MCLs (Maximum Contaminant Levels)

    • Health Scientists: STRENGTHEN law

    • Water-polluting Companies: WEAKEN law


Laws water quality1
Laws & Water Quality Groundwater!

  • 1977 Clean Water Act

  • Amended 1981 & 1987

    • Formerly – Water Pollution Control Act (1972)

  • Two Main Goals

    • eliminate discharge of pollutants

    • attain water quality for safe fishing and swimming


Laws water quality2
Laws & Water Quality Groundwater!

  • 1977 Clean Water Act

  • CWA effective at improving water quality at point sources

  • Point source discharges must obtain NPDES permits

    • (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) to release untreated wastewater into waterways

    • Nonpoint Source discharges very difficult to control

    • 1987 NPDES permit needed for nonpoint source discharges

    • CWA not as effective at monitoring these discharges due to lack of cooperation/coordination between govt, citizens, and industry


Discharge trading policy
Discharge Trading Policy Groundwater!

  • Experiment – permits for water pollution


Laws water quality3
Laws & Water Quality Groundwater!

  • Easier to control/regulate point source pollution rather than nonpoint source.

  • Govts regulate either by imposing penalty on polluter OR by taxing polluters for cleanup costs.


2 million plastic bottles dumped every 5 minutes
2 million plastic bottles, Groundwater!dumped every 5 minutes.

Is Bottled Water the Answer?


Is bottled water the answer
Is Bottled Water the Answer? Groundwater!

  • Some bottled water is not as pure as tap water and costs much more.

  • 1.4 million metric tons of plastic bottlesare thrown away.

  • Fossil fuelsare used to make plastic bottles.

    • The oil used to produce plastic bottles in the U.S. each year would fuel 100,000 cars.


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