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Cognition. Joey Watson. VII. Cognition. Memory Language Thinking Problem Solving and Creativity. Memory:. 3 storage units: Sensory perception to memory; iconic (visual) tenths of second or echoic (auditory) few seconds Short Few seconds to a minute 7 items +- 2

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Joey Watson

vii cognition
VII. Cognition
  • Memory
  • Language
  • Thinking
  • Problem Solving and Creativity
  • 3 storage units:
    • Sensory
      • perception to memory; iconic (visual) tenths of second or echoic (auditory) few seconds
    • Short
      • Few seconds to a minute
      • 7 items +- 2
      • Maintenance rehearsal- keep something in short term memory long enough to be used
      • Elaborative rehearsal- organizing and understanding info to remember it
    • Long
      • Permanent retention
      • Episodic memory- events experienced
      • Semantic memory- facts figures and general knowledge
      • Procedural memory- skills and habits
  • Sound to communicate ideas
  • Phonemes- smallest units of speech sounds distinct from one another
  • Morphemes- smallest semantically meaningful parts of language
  • Syntax- rules used for arrangement of morphemes into meaningful sentences
  • Prosody- tone and inflection; added meaning without changing words
  • Stages:
    • Cooing-> Babbling-> holophrases (one word for broad category of things)-> telegraphic speech (two or three word sentences)-> speech

Noam Chomsky – transformational grammar- differentiates between surface structure of language and deep structure of language

  • Many different types, sometimes overlap
  • Autistic thinking- applies to daydreaming and fantasizing
  • Directed thinking- drawing inferences, problem solving
  • Reasoning- drawing conclusions from evidence
  • Deductive reasoning- drawing logical conclusions from general statements
  • Inductive Reasoning- drawing general inferences from specific observations
problem solving and creativity
Problem Solving and Creativity:
  • Divergent thinking- brainstorming
  • Convergent thinking- narrowing to 1 choice
  • Heuristics- intuitive rules of thumb
  • Algorithms- systematic mechanical approaches to guarantee eventual answer to problem
  • Insight- sudden understanding of potential strategy to solve problem
problem solving and creativity1
Problem Solving and Creativity:
  • Wolfgang Kohler- had a chimp in cage with 2 sticks, outside cage were bananas, both too short to reach bananas so combined sticks into 1 to reach bananas –insight
  • Mental set- framed set of mind to approach problem; functional fixedness- tendency to assume item is only useful for task it is designed for
  • Confirmation bias- search for info that supports particular view
  • Creativity – process of producing something novel yet worthwhile; elusive nature