canada and the great war 1914 1918
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Canada and the Great War 1914-1918. Canada’s War Readiness. Pop. – 7 million Army – 3,000 Navy – 3 ships Air Force – 0 planes Leader – Robert Borden ARE WE WAR READY?????. Wartime Measures Act of 1914. Implemented Aug.22

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canada s war readiness
Canada’s War Readiness
  • Pop. – 7 million
  • Army – 3,000
  • Navy – 3 ships
  • Air Force – 0 planes
  • Leader – Robert Borden
wartime measures act of 1914
Wartime Measures Act of 1914
  • Implemented Aug.22
  • Gave full authority to the Fed.Gov’t to do everything deemed necessary “for the security , defense , peace , order and welfare of Canada.”
  • To transform all segments of society to support the war effort.
  • Powers of media censorship , arrest without charge , deportation without trial , control and disposal of property.
  • Led to rounding of “enemy aliens” and created 24-25 internment camps throughout Canada.
countries at war
Britain and its empire

Did Canada have a choice?


Russia (Drops out 1917)

USA (Enters in 1917)




Countries at War

Allied Powers

Central Powers


causes of the war
Causes of the War
  • Underlying Causes :

- Imperialism/Nationalism

- Arms Race

- Competition

- Secret Alliances

  • Immediate Cause :

- Assassination of Francis Ferdinand

( What was the reaction in Canada to these causes?)

training an army
Training an Army
  • Before leaving for the battlefields in Europe, Canadian volunteers were being trained at home
  • PM Robert Borden put Sam Hughes in charge of the training camps
  • Camp Borden was in Ontario and Camp Valcartier was in Quebec

(Why would a major training camp be placed in the province of Quebec?)


Enlistment posters were needed to attract young Canadian boys to volunteer to fight. Going into October of 1914, the Canadian Army now had numbers of around 30,000.


French Canadians felt little ties to France and no ties to Britain. 35,000 French Canadians enlisted with the 22nd Battalion being the only unit where French could be spoken.


3000 women joined the medical corps. One nurse wrote that she helped out in 291 operations in 24 hours.


The Call of the Motherland (1914)Verse 1: There’s a humming on the cable, there’s a whisper in the air, There’s message stirring each Canadian heart, Once more old England’s calling as she bids her sons prepare, To save the world and play a Briton’s part; But Canada no longer stands and watches from afar, The hearts of all her sons are beating high; They speed across the water and beneath the British star, Will show the nations how to fight and die; Chorus: When war’s alarms, and the call to arms, Comes across from the Motherland, At the call, as one, each Canadian son, Is ready to take his stand, From East and West, we will give out best, And the pray’rs of out people bring; And side by side with the Empire’s pride, We will fight for our Flag and King.” Verse 2: From the blue Pacific waters to the fair Atlantic coast, From the mountains and the prairies of the west, All Canada is stirring in a vast and mighty host, Prepar’d to offer England of her best; When tho’ the seas divide us. Britain’s duty is our own, And side by side with Britain we will go; ‘Till vict’ry rests upon her flag, she shall not fight alone, The Empire stands united ‘gainst her foe:


The Best Old Flag on Earth (1914)Verse 1: Though England’s foes may assail her, Though the war clouds hang around, Still the bright sun smiles O’er Britain’s Isles, For friends in need She’s found. From India’s Strand to Baffin’s land They have answered the Empire’s call; For we can’t turn our back On the old Union Jack, the Best old flag of all. Chorus: Then give three cheers, Three British cheers For the old Red, White and Blue. Let the world all know That Britain’s foe Is Canada’s foe too. Across the sea In Germany, Our boys, they will prove their worth For the Maple Leaf Our emblem dear And the best old Flag on earth. Verse 2: When England said men were wanted Far across the sea to go, From the east and west, They came, our best, To lay the tyrant low. So here’s good luck to Jack Canuck! For he’s ready to fight or to fall, And he’ll stick to the last, For he’s nailed to his mast The best old flag of all.

events of 1914 the western front
  • The Germans had advanced to within 30 miles of the city of Paris
  • The French held the Germans long enough for the British to arrive in France
  • Canadian Forces had crossed the Atlantic and were training in England

(What were they training for?)

trench warfare
Trench Warfare
  • On the Western Front, the opposing armies started to dig a series of trench networks.
  • The trenches would become the home of the soldiers for the rest of the war.
  • “The war to end all wars.”
life of a trench soldier
24 to 37 hrs shifts

Constant digging


Shell shock

Mental horrors

Physical horrors







No Man’s Land

Barbed wire








Life of a Trench Soldier