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Postharvest Losses of Fruits and Vegetables. Yoram Fuchs Dept. of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel. Postharvest loss : Is defined as any change in the quality or quantity of the product after harvest that decreases its value.

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Postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables

Postharvest LossesofFruits and Vegetables

Yoram Fuchs

Dept. of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce

ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel


Postharvest loss:

Is defined as any change in the quality or quantity of the product after harvest that decreases its value.

The losses may range from slight defects to total loss of the produce!

Small defects

(rind breakdown)

Total loss

(sour rot)


Fighting hunger by saving perishables jorge luis alonso 02 10 2008
Fighting Hunger by Saving PerishablesJorge Luis Alonso · 02-10-2008

  • President and CEO of the Global Cold Chain Alliance, spoke to a special United Nations Forum on the global food crisis at United Nations headquarters in New York City. Among many things said that countries without proper cold chain infrastructure lose about 30 to 60% of all perishable products each year before they even get to the table. He argued that the solution to combating world hunger involves more than just producing more food, but reducing losses through “proper postharvest technologies.


The strategies for attaining these goals include
THE STRATEGIES FOR ATTAINING THESE GOALS INCLUDE:

  • The primary goals of research on postharvest biology and technology of fresh produce areto reduce lossesin quantity and quality and to maintain safety between harvest and consumption sites.


(1) Growing cultivars that have good flavor and nutritional quality plus long postharvest-life potential when harvested at optimum maturity

(2) using an integrated crop management system that maximizes yield without sacrificing quality

(3) using optimal postharvest handling practices to maintain quality and safety of the food products.


  • The postharvest story starts at production. Therefore, efforts should be made to integrate production with postharvest management.

  • Food loss reduction is normally less costly than equivalent increases (in quantity) in food production.

  • There is a need for a sound foundation in developing integrated postharvest management systems for fruit and vegetables, with proper infrastructural facilities and logistic support.

  • The idea is to try, as far as possible, to maintain the initial product quality.

  • Usually there are both losses in quantity and in quality


Estimated levels of postharvest losses in the asia pacific region

COUNTRY efforts should be made to integrate production with postharvest management.

India

Indonesia

Iran

Korea

Philipines

Sri-Lanka

Thailand

Vietnam

LEVEL OF LOSS (%)

40

20 – 50

>35

20 – 50

27 – 42

16 – 41

17 – 35

20 - 25

Estimated Levels of Postharvest Losses in the Asia Pacific Region

R.S. Rolle, Agr.Industries Officer, FAO, 2004


Causes of postharvest losses
CAUSES OF POSTHARVEST LOSSES efforts should be made to integrate production with postharvest management.

  • External factors

    Mechanical injuries

    Parasitic diseases

  • Internal factors

    Physiological deterioration


Raw material
RAW MATERIAL efforts should be made to integrate production with postharvest management.

  • No Matter how perfect postharvest operations are, good returns cannot be obtained from poor quality raw materials

  • Pre-harvest essential factors:

    -Select suitable varieties

    -Apply proper crop management

    -Conduct proper disease and pest control

    -Harvest at the appropriate maturity stage

    -Apply proper harvesting practices in

    order to minimize damage at time of

    harvest


Effect of ripeness stage and drop height on incidence of internal bruising in tomatoes solar set
Effect of ripeness stage and drop height on incidence of internal bruising in tomatoes (‘Solar set’)


SANITATION: internal bruising in tomatoes (‘Solar set’)

before, during and after harvest

Dropped fruit and plant debris – a source of infection.

Remove it from the grove.

Repeatedly used infected packages and tools – a source of infection. The tools must be cleaned and sterilized. Used carton packages should be discarded.

Dropped fruit collected for elimination


POSTHARVEST LOSSES MAY OCCUR AT DIFFERENT STEPS DURIN THE MARKETING CHAIN

Losses at harvest: injuries, pressure damage

Losses at the packinghouse: chemicals, brushes and wax damage

Losses during storage:chilling injuries, decay, peel disorders

Losses during transport:bruising, deformation,decay

Losses at retail:decay, softening, wilting

Losses at the consumers:decay, softening, wilting


Losses during harvest MARKETING CHAIN

Pressure damage

Mechanical injury

Spliting


Long button injury MARKETING CHAIN


Wounding by the stems
WOUNDING BY THE STEMS MARKETING CHAIN


Mechanical damage
MECHANICAL DAMAGE MARKETING CHAIN

BIN DAMAGE


Losses at the packinghouse MARKETING CHAIN

Chemical spray injuries


Many studies showed that hot water dips (2-3 min at 53ºC) reduces decay development.

Recently, a new method combining a short hot water rinsing and brushing treatment (55-60ºC for 20-30 s) was developed to clean and disinfect agricultural products.


Hot tank damage reduces decay development.

Brushes damage


Wax damage reduces decay development.


Losses during Storage reduces decay development.

Decay


Modified atmosphere storage of tommy etkins mango
MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE OF reduces decay development. TOMMY ETKINS MANGO


Rind breakdown reduces decay development.

Physiological disorders

Chilling

injuries

Stem-end

Rind breakdown


Chilling injuries
CHILLING INJURIES reduces decay development.


Chilling injuries1
CHILLING INJURIES reduces decay development.




Losses at various stages of marketing of two mango varieties2
Losses at various stages of marketing of two mango varieties reduces decay development.

Eight to nine days after harvest, including five days in the market.

Srinivas et al J. Food Sci. Technol 1977. 34:70-72 Bangalore, India



Postharvest Losses in Selected Commodities in Taiwan (1993) reduces decay development.

(%)

Wiils, McGlasson, Graham and Joyce (1998)


IN SUMMARY reduces decay development.

It is necessary to pay special attention along the various stages of the handling of the commodity (from harvest, packinghouse treatments, storage, transport, retail and consumers) to avoid postharvest losses.

Proper infrastructure, logistics and management and human resources are essential to maintain improved postharvest procedures and marketing of fruits and vegetables.

Thank you!


Fighting hunger by saving perishables jorge luis alonso 02 10 20081
Fighting Hunger by Saving Perishables reduces decay development.Jorge Luis Alonso · 02-10-2008

  • President and CEO of the Global Cold Chain Alliance, spoke to a special United Nations Forum on the global food crisis at United Nations headquarters in New York City. Among many things said that countries without proper cold chain infrastructure lose about 30 to 60% of all perishable products each year before they even get to the table. He argued that the solution to combating world hunger involves more than just producing more food, but reducing losses through “proper postharvest technologies.


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