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First home-interview survey (1944). Gravity model. 1. Where do the trips p roduced in TAZ 3 go?. ?. 2. ?. 3. ?. 4. ?. 5. Gravity model equation. Attractiveness of “from” taz. Forecasted flows between zone i and zone j. =. Trips attracted to TAZ i.

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gravity model
Gravity model

1

Where do the trips

produced in TAZ 3 go?

?

2

?

3

?

4

?

5

gravity model equation
Gravity model equation

Attractiveness of “from” taz

Forecasted flows between

zone i and zone j

=

Trips attracted to TAZ i

Attractiveness of all tazes

Attraction constrained

  • where,
    • Tripsij: trips between TAZs i and j,
    • Productionsi: the productions from TAZ i,
    • Attractionsj: the attractions to TAZ j,
    • Friction factor (FFij): friction factor for TAZs i and j,
    • Socioeconomic factor (Kij): socioeconomic adjustment factor for TAZs i and j,
    • i: production TAZ
    • i: attraction TAZ

Relative attractiveness

conventional urban travel forecasting process
Conventional urban travel forecasting process
  • Includes four technical phases
    • Collection of data
    • Analysis of data
    • Forecasts of activity and travel
    • Evaluation of alternatives
travel demand forecasting the four step model
Travel demand forecasting – the four step model

Estimating the kinds of

trips generated

Distributing the generated

trips in space

Trip generation

Trip distribution

deciding how trips

are made in terms

of modes

Mode split

Trip assignment

Deciding the routes taken by the trips

mpo metropolitan planning organization
MPO: Metropolitan Planning Organization

A transportation policy-making organization made of representatives from local government and transportation authorities

five core functions of mpo
Five core functions of MPO
  • Establish a setting
  • Evaluate alternatives
  • Maintain a long-range plan
  • Develop a short-range plan
  • Involve the public
key decisions in long range planning
Key decisions in long-range planning
  • Approve scope of LRTP process
  • Approve vision and goals
  • Approve evaluation criteria, methods and measures
  • Approve transportation deficiencies
  • Approve financial assumptions
  • Approve strategies
  • Approve plan scenarios
  • Adopt preferred plan scenario
  • Adopt finding of conformity by MPO
  • Adopt LRTP by MPO
  • Approve conformity analysis
conformity
Conformity
  • Transportation investments must conform to the state implementation plan (SIP) for meeting air quality standards.
  • Conformity is a way to ensure that Federal funding and approval are given to those transportation activities that are consistent with air quality goals.
slide17

Transportation Conformity Process

Yes

No

Plan

Revision

needed

SIP

TIP

or

Emission

budget

Yes

TCMs

Perform regional analysis for plan

STP

Revision

needed

  • Compare build vs. no-build
  • Emission budget
  • Timely implementation of TCMs

State

Conformity

procedure

No

Transportation plan

TIP conformity

No

Yes

No

Project

Perform regional analysis for plan

TIP

Revision

needed

  • Compare build vs. no build
  • Emission budget
  • Timely implementation of TCMs

Hot Spot analysis

No

Project summary

No

Plan conformity

Yes

Project approval

what are subject to conformity
What are subject to conformity?
  • Transportation plans
  • Transportation improvement programs
options to reduce emissions from vehicles
Options to reduce emissions from vehicles
  • Vehicle controls
  • Fuel-based standards
  • Inspection and maintenance programs
  • Transportation control measures
  • Market-based Transportation Control Measures
a multi modal program includes
A multi-modal program includes:
  • Land use management (examples only)
    • Planning and zoning
    • Phasing and adequacy
    • Urban design
    • Mixed use
    • Density
  • Demand management (examples only)
    • Alternative work schedule
    • Pricing
    • Alternative modes
    • Alternative work locations
    • Employer support programs
a multi modal program includes1
A multi-modal program includes:
  • Supply management
    • Intelligent transportation system
    • Transit facilities and services
    • Intermodal facilities
    • Traffic engineering
    • Highway capacity and bike/walkways
other acronyms
Other acronyms
  • LULU: locally unwanted land use
  • NIMTOO: not in my term of office
  • BANANA: build absolutely nothing anywhere near anyone
  • NOPE: not on planet earth
  • CAVES: citizens against virtually anything
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