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Warm-up Activity. Put your address in the top right hand corner of your paper. Be as specific as you can. Now lets get more specific:. I nclude all the parts of your address (as is you were telling a person from another world). Ecology. Principles of Ecology Communities and Biomes

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warm up activity
Warm-up Activity
  • Put your address in the top right hand corner of your paper. Be as specific as you can
now lets get more specific
Now lets get more specific:
  • Include all the parts of your address (as is you were telling a person from another world).
ecology

Ecology

Principles of Ecology

Communities and Biomes

Population Biology

Biological Diversity & Conversation

ecology1

Ecology

Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology

What is Ecology?

Abiotic and Biotic Factors

objectives
Objectives
  • TLW be introduced to the field of Ecology.
  • TLW: Identify key biotic and abiotic factors in the environment.
vocabulary focus
Vocabulary Focus
  • Ecology
  • Biosphere
  • Ecosystem
  • Abiotic factors
  • Biotic Factors
what is ecology

What is Ecology?

THE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN ORGANISM AND ITS’ ENVIRONMENT

where are all living things found

Where are all living things found?

On Earth, living things are found in the air, on land, and in both fresh water and salt water.

biosphere
Biosphere
  • The part of Earth that supports life
    • Lithosphere -Top portion of Earth\'s crust
    • Hydrosphere - All the waters that cover Earth\'s surface.
    • Atmosphere – Portion that surrounds Earth
  • The biosphere, like the human body, is made up of systems that interact and are dependent on each other.
ecosystem
Ecosystem
  • The biosphere’s systems are called ECOSYSTEMS.
    • All the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of their environment
      • Biotic – living
      • Abiotic – nonliving
soil which is made up of clay which is important because it helps hold water in soil
Soil….which is made up of…clay…which is important because it helps hold water in soil.
summary
Summary
  • Biotic Factors:
    • All living things
  • Abiotic Factors:
    • non-living things in the environment such as: Water, Light, Air & Wind, Soil, Temperature.
  • Ecosystem:
    • the location of specific abiotic and biotic factors.
  • Ecology:
    • The study of the relationship between abiotic and biotic factors.
today s assignment
Today’s Assignment
  • Abiotic and Biotic Factors Venn Diagram activity.
    • Draw a Venn Diagram in your I-Notebook (left-hand side)
    • Label one circle Abiotic and one circle Biotic
    • At your table, categorize the following words as either abiotic or biotic (be sure to write the words in the appropriate circle of your Venn diagram.)
slide23
Whale Clock Grapes

Paper Glass Plastic

Aluminum Air Gold

Sand Clouds Wool

Corpse Snail Plant

Steak Pork Chops Fish

Salad Water Bread

Hair Pipe

Finger Nails Wooden Ruler

Cotton Fabric

characteristics of living things
Characteristics of Living things
  • At the bottom of your Venn Diagram list the 6 characteristics that all living things have in common…...brainstorm with your table….see if you can come up with all 6 that we discussed last semester.
characteristics of living things1
Characteristics of living things
  • Adapt and Evolve
  • Organization
  • Grow and Develop
  • Reproduce
  • Adjust to environment
  • Respiration
homework due tomorrow
Homework – due tomorrow
  • Make a list of abiotic and biotic factors in your home. As many as you can see…..Left- hand activity
ticket out the door
Ticket out the door
  • Period 1:
    • In your own words summarize what makes an object abiotic or biotic.
ticket out the door1
Ticket out the door
  • Periods 3, 4, and 5:
    • Explain the relationship between abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem, and speculate what would happen if one disappeared.
warm up activity1
Warm-up Activity
  • Think about your favorite outdoor spot. In your I-notebook (left hand side) list all the things that you would find there. After you have made your list, categorize each item as abiotic or biotic.
objectives1
Objectives
  • TLW: be able to describe how a population differs from a species.
  • TLW differentiate among the levels of organization in an ecosystem.
  • TLW analyze and explain the connections of organisms in an ecosystem.
vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Organism
  • Population
  • Community
  • Habitat
  • Niche
  • Review word: Species
organism species
Organism/Species
  • Organism: an individual living thing.
  • Species: a classification group for organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring
population
Population
  • All the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species (biotic)
community
Community
  • All the populations in an ecosystem (biotic)
habitat
Habitat
  • The place in which an organism lives
    • provides the kinds of food and shelter, the temperature, and the amount of moisture the organism needs to survive
slide42

The snake’s “habitat” is under a rock!

A bird’s habitat is usually a nest.

What’s a spider’s habitat?

niche
Niche
  • A plant\'s or animal\'s ecological niche is a way of life that is unique to that species.
    • How an organism meets its specific needs for food and shelter, how and where it survives, and where it reproduces.
niche1
Niche
  • Niche and habitat are not the same. While many species may share a habitat, this is not true of a niche.
  • Each plant and animal species is a member of a community, and the niche describes the species\' role or function within this community.
show me what you know
Show me what you know
  • For the following words what would be the level of organization
    • Example: Students – species/organism
    • Multiple students-
    • Students, principal, teacher –
    • School –
    • Earth -
show me what you know1
Show me what you know
  • For the following words what would be the level of organization
    • Example: Students – species/organism
    • Multiple students- population
    • Students, principal, teacher – community
    • School – ecosystem
    • Earth - biosphere
today s in class assignment
Today’s In-Class Assignment
  • Ecology card sort (10 minutes):
    • Work in groups of 2
    • Collect 1 envelope per group
    • Using the cards match a picture with the word and definition of word.
  • Create an ecosystem (10 minutes):
    • Using the following organisms: honeybee, sunflowers, earthworms, red-winged blackbirds, and moles, draw a possible ecosystem.
    • Label at least three interactions
warm up activity2
Warm-up Activity

Identify the abiotic and biotic factors in the

following picture.

this week at a glance
This week at a glance
  • Monday:
    • community interactions; summarize section 2.1 notes; complete graphic organizer; 2.1 study guide.
  • Tuesday:
    • Energy in an ecosystem; complete graphic organizer, Active reading strategies section 2.2.
  • Wednesday:
    • Food chains and food webs; writing assignment; 2.1 study guide due; 2.2 active reading strategy due; study for quiz.
  • Thursday:
    • Substitute; 2.1 quiz, worksheet packet due friday
  • Friday:
    • Owl Pellet lab activity
community interactions

Community Interactions

Symbiotic relationships

objectives2
Objectives
  • TLW: Identify interactions that occur within communities.
vocabulary focus1
Vocabulary Focus
  • Symbiosis
  • Mutalism
  • Commensalism
  • Parasitism
symbiosis
Symbiosis
  • Symbiosis means living together (a close and permanent association between organisms).
  • Three kinds of symbiosis are recognized:
    • Mutualism
    • Commensalism
    • Parasitism
commensalism
Commensalism
  • One species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited.
mutualism
Mutualism
  • Both species benefit from the relationship.
parasitism
Parasitism
  • A member of one species derives benefit at the expense of another species.
2 00 summary
$2.00 Summary
  • Summarize all notes from section 2.1
    • (Thursday, Friday, and Today)
    • Be prepared to share!!!
today s assignment1
Today’s assignment
  • Complete Symbiosis graphic organizer (put on the left-hand side of your I-notebook).
  • HW: 2.1 Study guide due Wed.
warm up activity3
Warm-up Activity
  • Take the first five minutes of class and update the table of contents in your I-notebook and finish any homework from yesterday.
reminders
Reminders
  • Due today:
    • 2.1 study guide
    • Active Reading Strategy 2.2
  • Quiz tomorrow: section 2.1
ecology2
Ecology

Energy Flow

objectives3
Objectives
  • TLW: Identify the sources of energy for all life processes.
  • TLW examine how energy flows through an ecosystem.
vocabulary focus2
Vocabulary Focus
  • Autotroph
  • Producer
  • Heterotroph
  • Consumer
  • Decomposer
  • Food Chain
  • Food web
energy flow feeding relationships
Energy Flow/Feeding Relationships

All ecosystems contain producers, consumers and decomposers.

Producers (Autotrophs)

  • Organisms that make their own food

ex. Plants, some bacteria, some protista

slide65
Consumers(Heterotrophs)
  • Organisms that eat producers or other consumers.
    • Herbivore – eats plants (ex. Cow, elephant)
    • Carnivore – eats herbivores, omnivores and/or carnivores (ex. Killer whale, hyena)
    • Omnivore – eats producers, herbivores, and/or carnivores – (ex. Bear, chimpanzees, humans)
slide68
Decomposers
  • Are consumers that breakdown and consume dead organisms and wastes.
  • Recycle nutrients back into biosphere (ex. Bacteria, mushrooms)
ecology3
Ecology

Food Chains and Food Webs

slide71
A Food Chain: is a feeding relationship from consumer to producer
  • Each organism in a food chain represents a feeding step, or Trophic level.
  • The trophic level also indicates the amount of energy being passed onto the next step.
slide72
Example:
    • The algae and plants are the producers.
    • The aquatic crustaceans are primary consumers – they eat the producers.
    • Fish are secondary consumers – they eat the primary consumers.
    • The raccoons represent a 3rd level of consumer.
food webs
Food Webs
  • A food web is a series of interrelated food chains which provides a more accurate picture of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem, as more than one thing will usually eat a particular species.    
warm up activity4
Warm-up Activity
  • Complete Handout. (5 minutes)
ecology4
Ecology

Ecological Pyramids

objectives4
Objectives
  • TLW: Evaluate the efficiency of energy transfer among organisms in an ecosystem.
vocabulary1
Vocabulary
  • Trophic level (review)
  • Ecological Pyramids
  • Biomass
review of energy flow in food chains food webs
Review of Energy Flow in Food Chains & Food Webs
  • Most food chains have no more than four or five links.There cannot be too many links in a single food chain because the animals at the end of the chain would not get enough food (and hence energy) to stay alive.
review of energy flow in food chains food webs1
Review of Energy Flow in Food Chains & Food Webs

Most animals are part

of more than one food

Chain and eat more

than one kind of food in order to meet their food and energy requirements.

These interconnected food

Chains form a food web.

ecological pyramids

carnivores

Heterotrophs

herbivores

Autotrophs

producers

Ecological Pyramids
  • An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
ecological pyramids1
Ecological Pyramids
  • Ecologists recognize three different types of ecological pyramids:
    • Energy pyramids
    • Biomass pyramids
    • Pyramids of numbers
energy pyramid
Energy Pyramid
  • Only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level.
biomass pyramid
Biomass Pyramid
  • The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called biomass.
  • A biomass pyramid represents the total amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem.
pyramid of numbers
Pyramid of Numbers
  • Based on the numbers of individual organisms at each trophic level.
show me what you know2
Show me what you know
  • In the diagram below, the coyote would be considered a _____.

A. herbivore

B. third-order consumer

C. second-order consumer

D. decomposer

show me what you know3
Show me what you know
  • In the diagram below, the coyote would be considered a _____.

A. herbivore

B. third-order consumer

C. second-order consumer

D. decomposer

show me what you know4
Show me what you know
  • Referring to the diagram below, energy flows from _____.

A. coyotes to grasses C. mice to cats

B. cats to mice D. coyotes to cats

show me what you know5
Show me what you know
  • Referring to the diagram below, energy flows from _____.

A. coyotes to grassesC. mice to cats

B. cats to miceD. coyotes to cats

show me what you know6
Show me what you know
  • Referring to the diagram below, as matter and energy move from grasses to coyotes, the amount of available energy _____.

A. increases C. decreases then increases

B. decreases D. increases then decreases

show me what you know7
Show me what you know
  • Referring to the diagram below, as matter and energy move from grasses to coyotes, the amount of available energy _____.

A. increases C. decreases then increases

B. decreasesD. increases then decreases

show me what you know8
Show me what you know
  • Referring to the diagram below, suppose 10,000 units of energy are available at the level of the grasses. What is the total number of energy units lost by the time energy reaches the coyote?

A. 90 units C. 990 units

B. 9900 units D. 9990 units

show me what you know9
Show me what you know
  • Referring to the diagram below, suppose 10,000 units of energy are available at the level of the grasses. What is the total number of energy units lost by the time energy reaches the coyote?

A. 90 units C. 990 units

B. 9900 unitsD. 9990 units

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