Higher Education in the 21st Century: Living in Pasteur s Quadrant

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Premise. Our approach to undergraduate education mustBe developed with a clear understandingOf the educational goals of our students,Their patterns of participation and enrollment,And their expectations.How can we ensure that all students experienceA coherent and engaging education?. Educatio

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Higher Education in the 21st Century: Living in Pasteur s Quadrant

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2. Premise

3. Education in the 21st Century What will it mean to be educated in the 21st century? What kind of educational environment must we provide to support a 21st century education? What will be the societal role of higher education in the 21st century and who will decide? How do Federal and state policies, and Federal R&D priorities, shape the contemporary university?

4. Envisioning Education in the 21st Century Adapt to new environments Integrate knowledge from different sources Continue learning throughout their lives Thrive in a complex world.

5. The Intentional Learners Envisioned By The National Panel Should Become…

6. How Can We Set High Expectations For All? How are student patterns of enrollment changing? How will these patterns of participation affect the kind of education that students receive? If the conditions within single institutions no longer define the experience of a majority of undergraduates, what additional steps must we take to ensure a coherent and purposeful educational environment for all students?

7. Who are our faculty? In 1987, 67% of faculty were full-time and 58% had tenure. In 2002, 55% were full-time and 45% had tenure. Full-time tenure and tenure-track faculty are being replaced by part-time and fixed term faculty. Part-time faculty primarily teach (89%); full-time faculty play more complex roles. Source: U.S. Dept. Education

8. Who Are Our Students Today And How Are They Participating In Higher Education? Patterns of Enrollment and Pathways to a Degree Have Become Extremely Complex Source: Adelman, C., Principal Indicators Of Student Academic Histories in Postsecondary Education, 1997-2000. U.S. Department of Education

9. Few Traditional Age Students (18-26 years old) Obtain Their Education From One Institution 57% attend more than one school as undergraduates 35% cross state lines to do so 20% earn acceleration credits by examination or dual enrollment 62% attend during summer terms 22% are stop-outs and 14% are enrolled for less than a year Of those who earn more than 10 credits, 64% earn a credential of some kind

10. Pathways Through Higher Education Are Now Very Complex 26% attended two or more 4-year schools 9% were true reverse transfers 22% transferred from a 2-year to a 4-year school 14% alternated between 2 and 4-year schools 12% took a few community college credits in addition to attending a 4-year school 11% attended two or more community colleges

11. The Pipeline vs Multiple Pathways

12. What will be the societal role of higher education in the 21st century and who will decide? To prepare students to be good citizens by providing them ways to help the institution itself be a good citizen while learning to be good citizens themselves; To foster and renew bonds of trust in the community; i.e., “social capital” and to use the neutrality of the campus to provide a common ground where differences of opinion and advocacy for particular points of view can be addressed in an open and constructive ways and where people with similar goals can come together and create ways to work together.

13. What will be the societal role of higher education in the 21st century and who will decide? To create leadership development opportunities for students and to foster a commitment to social and civic responsibility; To enhance the employability of graduates by providing opportunities to build a strong resume and to explore career goals; To promote learning both for students and for community members; To play a role in creating capacity in the community to work on complex societal problems.

14. What will be the societal role of higher education in the 21st century and who will decide? To design a more effective way for the campus to contribute to economic and community development; To build support for public investment in higher education, both to provide access and opportunity for students of all backgrounds to pursue an education and to generate knowledge that will address critical societal needs; To accomplish a campus mission of service.

15. What kind of educational environment must we provide to support a 21st century education? Rethinking the Idea of a University Broadening the Definition of Scholarship Building Genuine Scholarship into the Undergraduate Experience

16. The Idea of the University

17. The Idea of the University

18. The Multiversity

19. The Engaged University

20. The Engaged University

21. Engaged Scholarship Is… Research and learning that is conducted with the community rather than on behalf of the community; that reframes research, teaching and service as discovery and learning conducted in an engaged mode; that connects the goals of scholarship (to develop theory and advanced understanding) with technology (to solve practical problems and develop useful products); while taking its inspiration from both a scholarly context and the experience of the community and its challenges. Ramaley, J.A. (2002) Engaged scholarship is conducted in Pasteur’s Quadrant.

22. Pasteur’s Quadrant Where Basic Science & Technological Innovation Meet… …for the research community and students to promote the public good and enrich educational experiences

23. The Boyer Model of Scholarship

24. Scholarship of Discovery: contributes to the human stock of knowledge and to the intellectual climate of a college or university. Scholarship of Integration: makes connections across the disciplines, placing the specialties in larger context—often educating nonspecialists Scholarship of Application: Life in Pasteur’s Quadrant where knowledge is responsibly applied to consequential problems and addresses both individual and societal needs and where societal realities inspire and challenge theory.

25. What Will It Mean To Be Educated In The 21st Century? All Students can and should participate in discovery as well as integration and application of knowledge to problems of broader societal significance. Examples: Research experiences for undergraduates; internships; service-learning; pursuit of integrated studies and capstone experiences.

26. Know How vs. Know Why All forms of experimentation seek the same end: moving from superficial knowledge to deep understanding

27. Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College (2002) calls for “a philosophy of education that empowers individuals, liberates the mind and cultivates social responsibility.”

28. Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College (2002) How can we provide a meaningful education for both pipeline and pathway students? First, what should education entail? Challenging encounters with important issues More a way of learning than specific content Prepares students to be intentional learners who can adapt to new environments, integrate knowledge from different sources and continue to learn throughout their lives Prepares graduates who will be intentional, empowered, informed and responsible.

29. A practical liberal education lies between these two poles of direct experience and timeless purpose, thought and action, self-realization and social responsibility. It liberates the spirit and feeds the soul while preparing students to make informed and responsible decisions. Plato: The purpose of education is to cultivate the intellect, pursued for its own sake, in order to uncover the universal themes and natural laws that the prepared mind can discern beneath the surface confusion of life. Isocrates: The purpose of an education is to prepare citizens to participate in public affairs.

30. How Is Scholarship Changing And What Does This Mean For Undergraduate Education? Pure vs. Applied

31. Disciplinary traditions, subject-centered hierarchies, and organizational boundaries are melting rapidly in the scholarly community but not in the undergraduate curriculum. EXAMPLE Convergence and Complexity in the Sciences

32. Convergence and Complexity in the Sciences [cont.]

34. Is any of this new way of doing science and communicating about science reflected in the curriculum and in the experiences of undergraduates?

35. Implications of Greater Expectations and the Changing Nature of Scholarship for the Undergraduate Experience of Pathway Students

36. The Experience of Underrepresented Students

38. Critical Next Questions What do pathway students study? How are their experiences different from those of pipeline students? What effect do these differences have on the nature of the education they receive and what they learn? What are their educational goals and do their goals change as they progress?

39. Critical Next Questions [cont.] What public policies might smooth movements across institutions and enhance the intentionality and integrity of the curriculum that pathway students encounter? How can we close the gaps in participation and outcomes for different participants in our educational system? How can we promote greater success for students who take pathway routes through higher education? What Federal and state policies might we consider and how might we implement them to ensure access, quality, educational purposefulness, and affordability?

40. The Beginnings of an Answer Lessons from Learning Organization Models

41. Beginnings of an Answer…

42. Principles of Learning Organizations May Offer Insights on How to Design a Curriculum and Expectations for Non-Traditional (Pathways) Students. Rethink how to create an environment conducive to learning that does not depend upon the design of a single curriculum or set of requirements developed by one institution or the expectation of continuous enrollment.

43. Principles of Learning Organizations May Offer Insights on How to Design a Curriculum and Expectations for Non-Traditional (Pathways) Students. Open up boundaries and stimulate the exchange of ideas using some of the strategies of learning organizations: Use learning forums-events designed with explicit learning or discovery goals in mind (e.g., consider designs from research experiences for teachers or teacher institutes; cohort models of graduate study) Engage students in studying changing societal issues and link learning to societal concerns.

44. Principles of Learning Organizations May Offer Insights on How to Design a Curriculum and Expectations for Non-Traditional (Pathways) Students. c) Use student-generated audits/progress reports on learning, guided by a set of intentional learning criteria (e.g., Alverno College model). d) Offer symposia that bring together students, researchers and practitioners to learn from each other and share ideas. e) Develop learning communities on the web.

45. Conclusions Our concepts of undergraduate education are based on two key assumptions that remain true only for pipeline students. Most students now study at more than one institution. Most students now exhibit at least one “nontraditional” characteristic: part-time, over the age of 25, non-residential, work full or part-time. There is evidence of a growing disconnect between how research and scholarship are conducted and how we approach undergraduate education.

46. Therefore… We must create an educational environment that works across institutional boundaries since students cross these boundaries regularly. We must rethink the undergraduate curriculum and ensure that it reflects the changing nature of scholarship and incorporated a full range of scholarly experiences for all students, both “pipeline” and “pathway.”

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