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Dialogue types. GSLT course on dialogue systems spring 2002 Staffan Larsson. Inquiry- vs. action-oriented dialogue. Inquiry oriented dialogue (IOD) has the primary goal of exchanging information regardless of whether and how this information will be used in future actions

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dialogue types

Dialogue types

GSLT course on dialogue systems

spring 2002

Staffan Larsson

inquiry vs action oriented dialogue
Inquiry- vs. action-oriented dialogue
  • Inquiry oriented dialogue (IOD) has the primary goal of exchanging information
    • regardless of whether and how this information will be used in future actions
  • Action oriented dialogue (AOD) has the primary goal of a participant performing or being obliged to perform an action (or plan, i.e. a complex action)
inquiry oriented dialogue
Inquiry-oriented dialogue
  • utterance types: ask, answer
  • Information-seeking dialogue: one DP asks the questions, the other answers them
  • Information-exchange (information oriented) dialogue: both DPs ask questions and provide answers
    • can be seen as a sequence of infoseeking dialogues, possibly with embedded subdialogues
action oriented dialogue
Action-oriented dialogue
  • utterance types: request, confirm
  • In simple AOD, only one participant becomes obliged/comitted to some action or plan
  • Actions can either be performed ”online” while the dialogue is happening, or they may be stored as a plan to be performed after the dialogue (”offline”)
negotiative dialogue
Negotiative dialogue
  • utterance types: suggest, accept, reject
  • What is it?
    • Negotiation is a type of problem-solving
    • Possible definition of negotiative dialogue: DPs discuss several alternative solutions to a problem before choosing one of them
  • Negotiation does not imply conflicting goals
    • perhaps not 100% correspondence to everyday use of the word “negotiation”, but useful to keep collaborativity as a separate dimension from negotiation
  • Both AOD and IOD can be negotiative
    • in a flight information service, the user does not become obliged to fly anywhere; so it’s IOD
    • but several different flights may be discussed
negotiation tasks
Negotiation tasks
  • Some factors influencing negotiation
    • distribution of information between DPs (who knows what)
    • whether DPs must commit jointly (e.g. Coconut) or one DP can make the comittment (e.g. flight booking)
  • We’re initially trying to model negotiation in flight booking
    • sample dialouge
      • U: flights to paris on september 13 please
      • S: there is one flight at 07:45 and one at 12:00
      • U: what airline is the 12:00 one
      • S: the 12:00 flight is an SAS flight
      • U: I’ll take the 12:00 flight please
    • Sys provides alternatives, User makes the choice
    • Sys knows timetable, User knows when he wants to travel etc.
degrees of negotiativity
Degrees of negotiativity
  • non-negotiative dialogue: only one alternative is discussed
  • semi-negotiative dialogue: a new alternative can be introduced by altering parameters of the previous alternative, but previous alternatives are not retained
  • negotiative dialogue: several alternatives can be introduced, and old alternatives are retained and can be returned to
bdi agents
BDI: agents
  • What is needed for intelligent behaviour?
    • perception
    • Beliefs
    • Desires
    • planning and decistion making ability (deliberation)
    • Intentions
    • ability to act
  • To interact, also need social attitudes
    • common ground
    • obligations¨¨¨
    • committments
    • rights
from ai
from AI:
  • actions (e.g. buy a ticket) have
    • preconditions ( seller has ticket, buyer has money)
    • decomposition ( … )
    • effects
bdi and speech acts
BDI and speech acts
  • ”normal” actions affect the external world
  • speech acts affect mental states of agents
    • i.e. their beliefs, desires, intentions, …
  • so, speech acts can be described in terms of preconditions and effects on mental states
  • ConvinceByInform(S, H, P) [Allen]
    • roles: S=speaker, H=hearer, P=proposition
    • precondition: bel(S, P)
    • effect: bel(H, P)
later developments
later developments
  • Traum
    • incorporate social attitudes
    • model the fact that utterances are not always successful
  • initiate_assert(S, H, P)
    • precondition: int( S, mbel( S, H, P ) )
    • effect: bel( H, int( S, mbel( S, H, P ) ) )
  • acknowledge_assert( S, H, P )
    • precondition: bel( S, int( H, mbel( S, H, P )))
    • effect: mbel( S, H, P )
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