Incorporating direct quotations
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Incorporating Direct Quotations. Signals/Signal Phrases. You should include a phrase that introduces the direct quote and (sometimes) names the author or source to place the material in a meaningful context. This lets your readers know where the information came from.

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Signals signal phrases
Signals/Signal Phrases

  • You should include a phrase that introduces the direct quote and (sometimes) names the author or source to place the material in a meaningful context. This lets your readers know where the information came from.


Examples of signals

Author Nick Hornby emphasizes this when he has Rob say, “. . .”

As Hornby notes, “. .”

Rob Fleming argues that “. . .”

We see this most clearly when Will Freeman insists that “. . .”

British author Nick Hornby implies that “. . .”

The reader discovers this when Marcus observes that “. . .”

“. . .,” reasons Fiona, who goes on to assert that “. . .”

According to contemporary British author Nick Hornby, “ . . .”

Nick Hornby, winner of the Booker Prize, suggests that “. . .”

Examples of Signals


Separate or incorporated
Separate or Incorporated . .”

  • The whole sentence, from the signal phrase to the end of the direct quote, must be grammatically correct:

  • 1. You can separate your signal from the direct quote by a comma or colon.

  • 2. You can integrate your signal into the direct quotation with no comma or colon.


1 separate
1. Separate . .”

  • A comma or colon precedes the direct quotation.

    For example: Robert Frost wrote, “Something there is that doesn’t love a wall.”


2 incorporated
2. Incorporated . .”

  • No punctuation separates the signal phrase from the direct quotation.

    For example: Most people remember, unfortunately, that Frost’s poem also said that “good fences make good neighbors.”


A comparison

Separate: . .”

Robert Frost wrote, “Something there is that doesn’t love a wall.”

Most people remember, unfortunately, that Frost’s poem also said, “Good fences make good neighbors.”

Incorporated:

Robert Frost wrote that “something there is that doesn’t love a wall.”

Most people remember, unfortunately, that Frost’s poem also said that “good fences make good neighbors.”

A Comparison



Summary
Summary . .”

  • Use a signal phrase to move your readers smoothly from your ideas to a direct quotation.

  • Vary your signal verbs and signal phrases.

  • Either separate or incorporate the direct quotation.

  • Make sure the whole sentence is grammatically correct.


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