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Chapter Six Bacteria & Viruses PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Life Science Mr. Galloway. Chapter Six Bacteria & Viruses. 6.1 Classifying Organisms 6.2 The Six Kingdoms 6.3 Bacteria 6.4 Viruses. Recommended Website:. Classification = the process of grouping things based on their similarities.

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Chapter Six Bacteria & Viruses

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Life ScienceMr. Galloway

Chapter Six

Bacteria & Viruses

6.1 Classifying Organisms

6.2 The Six Kingdoms

6.3 Bacteria

6.4 Viruses

Recommended Website:


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  • Classification = the process of grouping things based on their similarities.

  • Biologists use it to organize living things into groups for easier study.

  • * Evolutionary theory now dominates the classification system, and assumes that similar organisms in a group evolved from a common ancestor.

  • * But, many scientists reject evolution and use the system only for identification.


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The Bible’s Basic System –(Nephesh means feeling, thinking creature)

(The word “creature” implies a Creator: GOD)

* Plants (Fruit bearing, grass) (Plants do not have “Nephesh” life)

* Nephesh Animals(Flyers, Swimmers, Walkers)

* Nephesh Man(personally made by God to reflect His character)


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Man’s Early Systems of Classification:

* Aristole (Greek in 4th centrury B.C.) Three groups (Fly, Swim, Walk)

* Linnaeus (1750’s) used a two-part naming system from Latin. (Dog = Canis familiaris)

- Binomial Nomenclature = a two-part name

1. Genus = first part of the name (Capitalized)

(Groups similar, related organisms)

2. Species = second part of the name. (Lowercase)

(Groups similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring)


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Binomial Nomenclature


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Land Classification Examples

Worlds(Earth, Mars, Venus…)

Continents(North American, Europe…)

Countries(America, Canada, Spain…)

States(Louisiana, Texas, Utah, …)

Parishes(Counties)Cities (Slidell, Dallas, …)

Neighborhoods(…)Streets (…)Houses(…)


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Classifying Your Own House

Worlds(Earth)

Continents(North American)

Countries(America)

States(Louisiana)

Parishes(St. Tammany)Cities (Covington

Neighborhoods(????…)Streets (???…)Houses(???…)


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Seven Levels of Creature Classification:

Kingdom – Phylum – Class – Order – Family – Genus – Species –

“Kingdom” is the biggest and broadest.

Each kingdom contains phyla – each phyla contains classes, etc.

The more levels that two organisms share, the more characteristics they have in common.


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Try this to remember the first letters of the levels:

Kings

Place

Crowns

On

Faithful

Godly

Servants


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How can you identify an organism you find?

Field Guide = book with pictures and descriptions of organisms and characteristics

Taxonomic Key = series of paired statements describing characteristics of organisms

Taxonomy = the scientific study of how living things are classified.


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Section 6.2 The Six Kingdoms

Linnaeus only used two kingdoms (Plants and Animals)

Until recently, scientists used a five kingdom system that combines #’s 1 & 2 below.

Six Kingdoms are now the standard:

1. Archaebacteria

2. Eubacteria

3. Protists

4. Fungi

5. Plants

6. Animals


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  • Archaebacteria (Unicellular)

  • - prokaryotes = genetic material is not in a nucleus

  • * Means “ancient bacteria”, since evolutionists believe they evolved first.

  • * Some live in extreme environments, like very hot water near lava.

  • * Some are autotrophs, and some are heterotrophs


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2. Eubacteria (Unicellular prokaryotes) “True Bacteria”

* Similar to archaebacteria, but their chemical makeup is different.

* Live all over the world, including your body.

* Most are harmless, and some are very useful.


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3. Protists (“Odds and ends” category; many types.)

* Some are unicellular like the paramecium, yet others are multicellular (seaweed).

* They are all eukaryotes (have a nucleus around their genetic material).


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4. Fungi (Mushrooms, molds, mildew, yeast)

* Most are multicellular eukaryotes.

* A few like yeast are unicellular eukaryotes.

* All are heterotrophs, most feed on decaying organisms.


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5. Plants* All are multicellular eukaryotes.* All are autotrophs.


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6. Animals

* All are multicellular eukaryotes.* And all are heterotrophs.


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Bacteria

are single-celled prokaryotes

(genetic material not in a nucleus).Cell Shapes – (Spherical, rodlike, spiral)

* Cell wall and its chemistry determine the shape.

Flagellum = long, whiplike structure for movement * Most have no flagellum, others one or many.

Two Kingdoms of Bacteria: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria


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Reproduction in Bacteria:

Asexual Reproduction = involves only one parent producing identical offspring.

* Binary Fission = asexual reproduction where one cell divides to make two.Sexual Reproduction = for animals it involves two parents who combine genetic material to produce offspring.* But bacteria do not produce baby bacteria this way.* Their sexual reproduction is by conjugation. * Conjugation = one bacterium transfers genetic material to another bacterium. (Then each later divides by binary fission.)


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Bacterial Conjugation (sexual reproduction)


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Bacterial Survival Needs – source of food, a way to break it down (respiration) to release energy, etc.Autotrophs (some use photosynthesis, others in deep oceans use chemical ways)

Heterotrophs (consume other things) (Yogurt, cheese, and apple cider)* Decomposers = (“recyclers”) that live in soil and break down chemicals in dead animals and plants.

Endospore = a thick, rounded, thick-walled, resting cell formed inside a bacterial cell.* Some bacteria form this when the environment is to harsh for growth. (Anthrax is an example.) * Endospores can resist freezing, heating, and drying.* When the environmental conditions are OK again, the bacterium begins to grow.


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VirusesAlien Invaders

Viruses are NON-living particles that invade living cells.

* Viruses do not use energy to grow, or respond to surroundings.* Viruses reproduce by invading living cells and forcing them to make more.

* They destroy the living cell in the process.


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Host = a living thing that provides a source of energy for a virus or an organism.

Parasite = organisms that live on or in a host and cause harm to the host.* All viruses are parasites since they destroy living cells.Naming Viruses: NOT by a binomial nomenclature, since they are not alive.* Named after scientists, diseases, hosts


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Shapes and Sizes of Viruses:

Shapes - round, rods, bricklike, bulletlike, or even ROBOT like the Bacteriophage, which infects bacteria.Sizes – 22 to 250 nm (nanometers) (nm = one billionth of a meter. Much smaller than even a bacterium, 750 nm, like the strep throat bacteria)Structure of Viruses: Two basic parts:

1. Outer Protein Coat (which locks onto certain living cells and not others)2. Inner Genetic Core (which is injected into the cell and takes over)


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Bacteriophage

“Bacteria Eater”

  • Genes

  • Head

  • Tail

  • Tail Fibers


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How Viruses Multiply:

* Genetic material is injected into the cell and takes over the cell’s programs.* Directs the cell to make more virus particles.* Many new virus particles form inside the cell, until the cell burst.Active Viruses = immediately begin multiplying inside the cell.Hidden Viruses = injects genetic material which waits until later to multiply.(Often waits until the body of the host is weak from stress.)


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Virus (bacteriophage)


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How a bacteriophage invades a living cell.


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http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/viruses/adlyt.html


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Viral Diseases:(Colds, Flu, AIDS, measles, Rabies, etc.)

Vaccine = a substance that stimulates the body to produce chemicals that destroy viruses or bacteria.* Made of altered virus or bacteria.* It causes the body to be “on alert” for live invaders similar to the vaccine ones.


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