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Chapter 7. Ionic and Metallic Bonding. Section 1. Ions. Learning Targets. 7.1.1 – I can determine the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element. 7.1.2 – I can explain how the octet rule applies to atoms of metallic and nonmetallic elements.

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Ionic and Metallic Bonding


Section 1
Section 1

Ions


Learning targets
Learning Targets

7.1.1 – I can determine the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element.

7.1.2 – I can explain how the octet rule applies to atoms of metallic and nonmetallic elements.

7.1.3 – I can describe how cations form.

7.1.4 – I can explain how anions form.


Valence electrons
Valence Electrons

  • Valence electrons – electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an elements atoms.

  • Valence electrons determine an elements properties.



The octet rule
The Octet Rule group number.

  • Octet rule – in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of noble gases.

  • Or the configuration of ns2np6


  • Atoms of group number.metallic elements tend to lose their valence electrons, leaving a complete octet in the next-lowest energy level.

  • Atoms of nonmetallic elements tend to gain electrons or share electrons with another nonmetallic element to achieve a complete octet.


Formation of cations
Formation Of Cations group number.

  • An atom’s loss of valence electrons produces a cation, or a positively charged ion.

  • Usually metal atoms – very few nonmetals lose electrons.



Which looks like possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.


Formation of anions
Formation Of Anions possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

  • The gain of negatively charged electrons by a neutral atom produces an anion.

  • Nonmetals form anions and change their name endings to –ide.

  • Halide ion – ions produced when atoms of chlorine and the other halogens gain electrons.


Which looks like possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.


Section 2
Section 2 possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds


Learning targets1
Learning Targets possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

7.2.1 – I can explain the electrical charge of an ionic compound.

7.2.2 – I can describe three properties of ionic compounds.


Formation of ionic compounds
Formation of Ionic Compounds possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

  • Ionic compound – compounds composed of cations and anions.

  • Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral.

  • Sodium reacting with chlorine 1

  • Sodium reacting with chlorine 2

  • Aluminum reacting with bromine

  • Sodium reacting with bromine

  • Aluminum reacting with iodine


Ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

  • Ionic bonds – electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds.

  • Think about sodium and chloride

    • Sodium has 1 valence electron.

    • Chlorine has 7 valence electron.

    • When they combine sodium gives chlorine its 1 valence electron so they both satisfy the octet rule.


Formula units
Formula Units possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

  • Chemical formulas – shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance.

  • Formula unit – lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.


Examples
Examples: possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

  • Look at sodium and oxygen


Examples1
Examples: possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

  • Look at aluminum and oxygen


Examples2
Examples: possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

  • Pick a metal from the representative elements.

  • Pick a nonmetal from the representative elements


Properties of ionic compounds
Properties OF Ionic Compounds possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.

  • Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature.

  • Ionic compounds generally have high melting points.


  • Coordination number possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.– number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal



Section 3
Section 3 or dissolved in water.

Bonding In Metals


Learning targets2
Learning Targets or dissolved in water.

7.3.1 – I can model the valence electrons of metal atoms.

7.3.2 – I can describe the arrangement of atoms in a metal.

7.3.3 – I can explain the importance of alloys.


Metallic bonds and metallic properties
Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties or dissolved in water.

  • The valence electrons of metal atoms can be modeled as a “sea” of electrons.

  • Metallic bonds – attraction of the free-floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal atoms.


Metallic bonds and metallic properties1
Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties or dissolved in water.

  • Good conductors of electrical current because of the free-floating electrons.

  • Malleable (pounded into sheets)

  • Ductile (pulled into wires)


Crystalline structure of metals
Crystalline Structure of Metals or dissolved in water.

  • Metal atoms are arranged in very compact and orderly patterns.


Alloys
Alloys or dissolved in water.

  • Alloy – mixtures composed of two or more elements at least one of which is a metal.

  • Alloys are important because their properties are often superior to those of the component elements.


  • Substitutional or dissolved in water. alloy – components are about the same size and one replaces (substitutes) another.

  • Interstitial alloy – components are different sizes and smaller fits into the spaces (intercies) of the larger.


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