Imperialism 1890 s 1900 s
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IMPERIALISM 1890’S-1900’S. FOCUS ON SPANISH AMERICAN WAR, TR , TAFT AND WW. KEY INFLUENCES. 1-Missionaries Rev. Josiah Strong— “Our Country: It’s Possible Future and Present Crisis”—missionary work. American Missionaries In China, 1905. Social Darwinism. White Man’s Burden.

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IMPERIALISM 1890’S-1900’S

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IMPERIALISM1890’S-1900’S

FOCUS ON SPANISH AMERICAN WAR, TR , TAFT AND WW


KEY INFLUENCES

  • 1-Missionaries

  • Rev. Josiah Strong— “Our Country: It’s Possible Future and Present Crisis”—missionary work

American Missionaries

In China, 1905


Social Darwinism

White Man’s Burden

Hierarchy of Race


Commercial/Business Interests

US Foreign Investments

1869-1908


American Frontier-Closed

Frederick

Jackson

Turner’s

Frontier

Thesis--


Alfred Mahan-”Influence of Sea Power”


PROBLEMS IN CUBA

  • 1895-REVOLT VS. SPANISH GOV’T

  • “SCORCHED EARTH” POLICY

  • BUTCHER WEYLER—

Reconcentration Camps


Yellow Journalism

  • Pulitzer & Hearst

Hearst to Frederick Remington:You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!


Feb. 9th 1898De Lome Letter

Private letter by Spanish Ambassador to US

McKinley is “weak”

**popular opinion=war

**business---no war


Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration.

Imperialist and American nationalist.

Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!

Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

Teddy Roosevelt


THE US INVOLVED IN CUBA

USS Maine sent to evacuate Americans out of Havana

-Feb. 15th 1898---Maine blew up in Havana Harbor

blame???


Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain!

Funerals for Victims


SPANISH AMERICAN WAR

  • Spain orders warships to Cuba

  • Admiral Cervera—blockaded by American fleet in Santiago harbor

  • US forces unprepared—malaria, yellow fever & typhoid; food & clothes

  • Disorganized Fighting

    • El Caney—July 1st

    • San Juan Hill

    • Spanish troops outnumbered and outgunned

      August 12, 1898---armistice—5000 die of disease

      only 400 men die from war injuries


The Spanish-American War (1898):“That Splendid Little War”(John Hay-Sec. of State)


Rough Riders


To The Victor Go The Spoils!US takes Philippines


Dewey captures Manila!


PROBLEMS IN THE PHILIPPINES

  • 1-ADMIRAL DEWEY IN HONG KONG

  • TOLD TO TAKE PHIL IF US DECLARES WAR ON SPAIN

  • 2-MAY 1898—DEWEY DESTROYS SPANISH FLEET

  • 3-AUGUST 1898-MANILA SURRENDERS


Emilio Aguinaldo-Freedom Fighter

Philippine Independence-1946


US “Sphere of Influence”


Treaty of Paris, 1898

  • Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.

  • Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam.

  • The U. S. paid Spain$20 mil. for thePhilippines.

  • The U. S. becomesan imperial power!


KEY ACTS

  • 1-TELLER AMENDMENT

  • WITHDRAW BY 1902—give Cubans freedom after the war

  • 2-PLATT AMENDMENT 1901

  • US CAN INTERVENE

  • CUBA DEVELOPS CONSTITUTION

  • NAVAL BASE


ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE

  • Mark Twain, William James, Samuel Gompers, Andrew Carnegie, WJ Bryan

  • Dislike imperialism; conflict

  • Argument

    • Too much despotism (colonialism)

      • Vs Trade/Profits/Natural resources


Journal: Should the Constitution follow the flag?

?


TR AS PRESIDENT

  • 1-PANAMA CANAL

  • 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

  • 1901  Hay-Paunceforte Treaty.

  • Philippe Bunau-Varilla,agent provocateur.

  • Dr. Walter Reed.

  • 1903  Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty


TR

  • “Encourages” a Panamian Revolution

  • Prevents Columbian forces entering area

  • Pushes for independence


Panama Canal

TR in Panama

Construction starts in 1904


Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 1905


“Speak Softly But Carry a Big Stick”


Constable of the World


TR continued

*continued occupation of Philippines

After (US-Phil War 1899+)

Aguinaldo fought US

  • 4-Russo-Japanese

  • War 1904

  • Portsmouth Treaty

    Nobel Peace Prize

    For TR


Yellow Peril

  • Problems in California

  • Gentlemen’s Agreement

  • Root-Takihira Agreement


Great White Fleet 1907

End of TR’s Presidency . . . . .


JOURNAL: What is TR’s Legacy? Does he belong on Mt. Rushmore?


Taft as President

“Dollar Diplomacy”

1-Improve financialopportunities for American businesses.

2-Use private capital tofurther U. S. interestsoverseas.

3- the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.


Wilson as President“Moral Diplomacy”

*The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.

*Spread democracy.

*Promote peace.

*Condemn colonialism


1st Actions of Wilson

  • 1-repeal Panama Canal Tolls Act

  • 2-Jones Act 1916

  • 3- Haiti Civil War 1915

  • 4-Problems in Dom. Republic

  • 5-US buys Virgin Islands from Denmark 1917


Mexican Revolution 1910

  • Huerta seizes control of Mexico

    • Should US send troops to protect US Business?

  • Carranza, Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata fought against Huerta.

  • The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz

  • Problems with US sailors in Tampico 1914

  • Carranza would gain power in Mexico after Huerta’s gov’t collapses

  • Wilson sends Gen. Pershing to fight Villa as he attacks along US/Mexican Border


Zapata

Pancho Villa


U. S. Interventions in Latin America: 1898-1920s


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