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Susan M. Pojer , Web Mistress The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

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By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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Susan M. Pojer, Web Mistress

The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca

  • A New Player  Europe

    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.

    • Better seaworthy ships.

  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”

Admiral Zheng He

  • Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!


A Map of the Known World,pre- 1492

Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.

New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass


New Weapons Technology

Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • School for Navigation, 1419

Museum of Navigationin Lisbon

Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.

  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.

  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.

    • Calicut.

  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).

Zheng He’s Voyages

  • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!

Christofo Colon [1451-1506]

Columbus’ Four Voyages

Other Voyages of Exploration

Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c

Atlantic Explorations

Looking for “El Dorado”

The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs


Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II

The Death of Montezuma II

Mexico Surrenders to Cortez

The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas


Francisco Pizarro


Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

Sacrifice of the First-Bornby Theodore de Bry

Why would the

'Columbian Exchange'

be considered the

tsunami of



The “Columbian Exchange”

Cycle of Conquest & Colonization






Treasuresfrom the Americas!


The economy and trade are essential to the health and safety of the nation.

Get as much gold and silveras you can.

Establish a favorable balance of trade.

Get colonies.

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

The Slave Trade

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.

  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.

    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.

    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.

  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.

Slave Ship

“Middle Passage”

“Coffin” Position Below Deck

African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!

European Empires in the Americas

The Colonial Class System





Native Indians

Black Slaves

Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

  • Encomienda or forced labor.

  • Council of the Indies.

    • Viceroy.

    • New Spain and Peru.

  • Papal agreement.

The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission

The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

Father Bartolome de Las Casas

New Laws  1542

New Colonial Rivals

  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.

  • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.

  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.

    • Surat in NW India in 1608.

  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.

New Colonial Rivals

Impact of European Expansion

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.

5. New Patterns of World Trade

Susan M. Pojer, Web Mistress

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