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Susan M. Pojer , Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/. The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

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slide1

Susan M. Pojer, Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/

The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

slide2

Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca
  • A New Player  Europe
    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271
    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.
    • Better seaworthy ships.
  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”
slide3

Admiral Zheng He

  • Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!

1371-1435

slide5

Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.

slide6

New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant

slide8

Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • School for Navigation, 1419
slide10

Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.
  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.
  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.
    • Calicut.
  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).
slide11

Zheng He’s Voyages

  • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!
slide16

Atlantic Explorations

Looking for “El Dorado”

slide17

The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II

slide20

The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas

vs.

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa

slide23

Why would the

\'Columbian Exchange\'

be considered the

tsunami of

unintentional

"bio-terrorism"??

slide25

Cycle of Conquest & Colonization

Explorers

Conquistadores

OfficialEuropeanColony!

Missionaries

PermanentSettlers

slide27

Mercantilism

The economy and trade are essential to the health and safety of the nation.

Get as much gold and silveras you can.

Establish a favorable balance of trade.

Get colonies.

slide29

The Slave Trade

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.
    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.
    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.
  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
slide30

Slave Ship

“Middle Passage”

slide32

African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!

slide34

The Colonial Class System

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattos

Native Indians

Black Slaves

slide35

Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

  • Encomienda or forced labor.
  • Council of the Indies.
    • Viceroy.
    • New Spain and Peru.
  • Papal agreement.
slide36

The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission

slide39

New Colonial Rivals

  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.
  • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.
  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.
    • Surat in NW India in 1608.
  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
slide41

Impact of European Expansion

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.

slide42

5. New Patterns of World Trade

Susan M. Pojer, Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/

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