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Susan M. Pojer , Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/. The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

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By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Susan M. Pojer, Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/

The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca

  • A New Player  Europe

    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.

    • Better seaworthy ships.

  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Admiral Zheng He

  • Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!

1371-1435


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

A Map of the Known World,pre- 1492


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

New Weapons Technology


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • School for Navigation, 1419


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Museum of Navigationin Lisbon


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.

  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.

  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.

    • Calicut.

  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Zheng He’s Voyages

  • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Christofo Colon [1451-1506]


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Columbus’ Four Voyages


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Other Voyages of Exploration


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Atlantic Explorations

Looking for “El Dorado”


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

The Death of Montezuma II


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Mexico Surrenders to Cortez


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas

vs.

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Sacrifice of the First-Bornby Theodore de Bry


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Why would the

'Columbian Exchange'

be considered the

tsunami of

unintentional

"bio-terrorism"??


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

The “Columbian Exchange”


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Cycle of Conquest & Colonization

Explorers

Conquistadores

OfficialEuropeanColony!

Missionaries

PermanentSettlers


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Treasuresfrom the Americas!


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Mercantilism

The economy and trade are essential to the health and safety of the nation.

Get as much gold and silveras you can.

Establish a favorable balance of trade.

Get colonies.


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

The Slave Trade

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.

  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.

    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.

    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.

  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Slave Ship

“Middle Passage”


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“Coffin” Position Below Deck


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

European Empires in the Americas


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

The Colonial Class System

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattos

Native Indians

Black Slaves


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

  • Encomienda or forced labor.

  • Council of the Indies.

    • Viceroy.

    • New Spain and Peru.

  • Papal agreement.


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Father Bartolome de Las Casas

New Laws  1542


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

New Colonial Rivals

  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.

  • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.

  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.

    • Surat in NW India in 1608.

  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

New Colonial Rivals


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

Impact of European Expansion

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.


By ms susan m pojer horace greeley hs chappaqua ny

5. New Patterns of World Trade

Susan M. Pojer, Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/


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