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Susan M. Pojer , Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/. The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

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Susan M. Pojer, Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/

The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY


Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca

  • A New Player  Europe

    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.

    • Better seaworthy ships.

  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”


Admiral Zheng He

  • Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!

1371-1435



Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.


New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant



Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • School for Navigation, 1419



Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.

  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.

  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.

    • Calicut.

  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).


Zheng He’s Voyages

  • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!


Christofo Colon [1451-1506]





Atlantic Explorations World:

Looking for “El Dorado”


The First Spanish Conquests: World:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II




The First Spanish Conquests: World: The Incas

vs.

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa


Slaves Working in a World:Brazilian Sugar Mill


Sacrifice of the First-Born World:by Theodore de Bry


Why would the World:

'Columbian Exchange'

be considered the

tsunami of

unintentional

"bio-terrorism"??



Cycle of Conquest & Colonization World:

Explorers

Conquistadores

OfficialEuropeanColony!

Missionaries

PermanentSettlers


Treasures World:from the Americas!


Mercantilism World:

The economy and trade are essential to the health and safety of the nation.

Get as much gold and silveras you can.

Establish a favorable balance of trade.

Get colonies.



The Slave Trade World:

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.

  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.

    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.

    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.

  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.


Slave Ship World:

“Middle Passage”



African Captives World:Thrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!



The Colonial Class System World:

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattos

Native Indians

Black Slaves


Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World World:

  • Encomienda or forced labor.

  • Council of the Indies.

    • Viceroy.

    • New Spain and Peru.

  • Papal agreement.


The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church World:

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission


The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & World:The Pope’s Line of Demarcation


Father Bartolome de Las Casas World:

New Laws  1542


New Colonial Rivals World:

  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.

  • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.

  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.

    • Surat in NW India in 1608.

  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.



Impact of European Expansion World:

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.


5. New Patterns of World Trade World:

Susan M. Pojer, Web Mistress http://www.pptpalooza.net/


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