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The Positive Youth Justice Model. Jeffrey A. Butts, Ph.D. John Jay College of Criminal Justice City University of New York Presented to: 2011 Conference of the Oregon Juvenile Department Directors Association September 19, 2011. 2010 Report.

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slide1

The Positive Youth Justice Model

Jeffrey A. Butts, Ph.D.

John Jay College of Criminal Justice

City University of New York

Presented to:

2011 Conference of the Oregon Juvenile Department Directors Association

September 19, 2011

2010 report
2010 Report

Butts, Jeffrey A., Gordon Bazemore, and Aundra Saa Meroe (2010) 

Positive youth justice: Framing justice interventions using the concepts of positive youth development

Washington, DC: Coalition for Juvenile Justice.

www.juvjustice.org

what s your theory
What’s Your Theory?

3

Community disorder

Family support

Cognitive defects

School success

Secure housing

School failure

Poverty

Stable employment

Health

Mental illness

Positive friends

Family violence

Crime

Protective

Risk

Greed

Unemployment

Ethical framework

Poor nutrition

Adult guidance

Substance abuse

Self-efficacy

Hopelessness

Community respect

Lack of empathy

Physical safety

Poor decision-making

Future aspirations

How Do We Focus Intervention?

lessons from brain research
Lessons from Brain Research

 Adolescence dominated by peer interactions, novelty seeking, elevatedconsumption behavior, which can be adaptive despite the risks that coincide with them

 Adolescents have poor self-control in emotionally charged situations, are easily influenced by peers and don’t think through consequences of some actions

 Research suggest that this is due to rapid growth in brain areas governing pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity with slower development of areas supporting self-control

 New research suggests adversity and stresscan “down regulate” brain systems that allow for adaptive behavior and “up regulate” emotional centers of the brain that hijack the rational regions in guiding choices and actions

if our goal is effectiveness
If our Goal is Effectiveness…
  • When it comes to intervention strategies, we must be AGNOSTIC and open to new facts
  • Advocating one form of intervention over another based on turf, convenience, bias or a concern for our own financial success is simply wrong
  • Central goal of intervention is to ensure community safety by changing youth behavior -- NOT merely to deliver a particular type of service or to ensure the financial stability of our agencies
effective intervention must include
Effective Intervention Must Include
  • Dual Focus on:
  •  Risk Factors
  •  Protective Factors

Maximum Use of:

 Family Resources

 Community Partners

Parallel Efforts to:

 Generate Evidence of Impact

 Facilitate Successful Replication

protective factors matter
Protective Factors Matter

We Must Acknowledge that Risk-Based Interventions Are Not Enough

Two Primary Examples:

 Mental Health Services

 Substance Abuse Services

more than mental health treatment
More Than Mental Health Treatment

 Even a perfect mental health treatmentsystem would not eliminate juvenile crimeand recidivism

 The overlap between crime and mentalhealth is misunderstood (and often misused)

8

prevalence of mental health problems
Prevalence of Mental Health Problems

All U.S. Adolescents

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1999), Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General

Juvenile Assessment Center Population (diversion)

McReynolds et al. (2008), Crime and Delinquency

Secure Detention Population

Teplin et al. (2002), Archives of General Psychiatry

Probation Intake Population

Wasserman et al. (2005), American Journal of Public Health

69%

46%

29%

21%

What Does This Mean?

cause or correlation
Cause or Correlation ?

 The deeper we look into the juvenile justice process, the more we find mental health problems…

 Is this because mental health issues causecrime?

 Or is the justice system less likely to divert youth with mental health issues because of their service needs, thus more likely to charge, adjudicate, place, etc.?

10

prevalence of mental health problems1
Prevalence of Mental Health Problems

Social and Economic Disadvantages

Justice System Contact

Mental Health Issues

?

Offenders with Mental Health Problems

slide12
Are Rates of Mental Disorders Among Young Offenders Partly a Reflection of Their Social-Economic Status?
  • Amazingly, there are no good studies on adolescents…… but we do know some thingsfrom studies of adults.
slide13

“Major Depressive Episode” in Past Year (Adults)

14%

6%

Working Full-Time

Unemployed

National Survey on Drug Use and Health, SAMHSA (2006)

slide14

“Any Mood Disorder” in Adults Under 40

13.6%

7.5%

7.4%

Some College

High School

Less Than High School

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (III), reported in Jonas et al. (2006)

slide15

“Any Mood Disorder” in Adults Under 40

12.5%

8.6%

5.7%

High Income

Moderate Income

Low Income

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (III), reported in Jonas et al. (2006)

slide16

“Dysthymia” in Adults Under 40

11.7%

4.6%

1.9%

Some College

High School

Less Than High School

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (III), reported in Jonas et al. (2006)

slide17

“Dysthymia” in Adults Under 40

8.9%

5.0%

0.9%

High Income

Moderate Income

Low Income

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (III), reported in Jonas et al. (2006)

key question
Key Question

 Do youth become involved in persistent criminal behavior because of mental health problems?

or,

 Are mental health problems more common among youth that tend to be more deeply involved in the justice system?

Very Different Implications for Service Delivery and Crime Reduction Policy

substance use disorders
Substance Use Disorders
  •  Approximately 10% to 25% of young offenders have substance use issues that could be called “problematic” – either abuse or dependence
  •  Most of these substance use issues involve alcohol and marijuana (80% to 90%)
  •  Few youth (5%) have addiction or dependence problems involving serious, illegal drugs
substance abuse
Substance Abuse

If we combine prevalence data with national statistics about the volume of juvenile justice cases, we see something else interesting…

slide21

Rate of substance use disorders among all U.S. 12-17 year-olds.

- SAMHSA (2006)

8%

100%

What proportion have a substance use disorder?

- McReynolds et al. (2008)

11%

Youth at a Juvenile Assessment Center

slide22

50%

100%

About half of all arrested youth are referred to juvenile court authorities.

- Juvenile Court Statistics, OJJDP

Of these, what proportion have a substance use disorder?

- Wasserman et al. (2005)

25%

11%

Youth at a Juvenile Assessment Center

Youth Referred to Juvenile Probation

slide23

20%

100%

About 20 percent of all court referred youth are held in secure detention at some point.

- Juvenile Court Statistics, OJJDP

Of these, what proportion have a substance use disorder?

- Teplin et al. (2002)

25%

11%

49%

Youth at a Juvenile Assessment Center

Youth Referred to Juvenile Probation

Youth Held in Secure Detention

slide24

100%

When they first enter the juvenile system, the prevalence of substance abuse among young offenders is similar to other teens.

Substance-abusing offenders, however, may be more likely to be retained through to the more restrictive stages of justice processing.

The preponderance of drug-abusing youth in the deep end of the justice system could be partly a function of how case decisions are made if drug-abusing youth are treated more coercively.

Drug-using youth would be a larger subgroup by the end of the process; not because drugs cause crime but because drugs prompt more aggressive action by justice authorities.

25%

11%

49%

Youth at a Juvenile Assessment Center

Youth Referred to Juvenile Probation

Youth Held in Secure Detention

substance use disorders1
Substance Use Disorders

Among Youth Referred to a Juvenile Assessment Center

Among Youth Referred to Juvenile Probation Intake

Abuse Disorders

Alcohol 2%

Marijuana 4%

Other drug 1%

Dependence Disorders

Alcohol 1%

Marijuana 5%

Other drug 1%

No Disorder 89%

Abuse Disorders

Alcohol 7%

Marijuana 10%

Other drug 3%

Dependence Disorders

Alcohol 3%

Marijuana 13%

Other drug 4%

No Disorder 75%

Source: McReynolds et al. (2008)

Source: Wasserman et al. (2005)

why the confusion
Why the Confusion?

Why do we hear so much about mental health and substance abuse?

 The most troubling cases often involve MH and SA

 MH and SA problems were overlooked and under-diagnosed for years

 The science related to these issues has improved

 Interest group politics and public relations

new model of intervention

27

New Model of Intervention
  • We need a strong, evidence-based approach that is:

 Suitable for youth not primarily affected by mental health or substance abuse issues

 Designed to support behavior change and not simply deterrence

 Focused on protective factors, not just risk

slide28

Supportive relationships

  • Rewards for work
  • Skill development
  • Success in learning
  • Physical activity and sports
  • Music and the arts
  • Civic engagement
  • Community/political involvement

28

Positive Youth Development

 Strengths and assets

Attachment, engagement, and socialization

Usefulness and belonging

Broad system of community-based supports

Allow all youth to experience opportunities and activities that youth in wealthy communities take for granted:

slide29

Community Network for Youth DevelopmentSan Francisco

40 Developmental Assets

National Research Council

Institute for Applied Research in Youth DevelopmentTufts University

Promising and Effective Practices National Youth Employment Coalition

National Clearinghouse and Families & Youth

Youth Development Framework

29

Not Adapted for Youth Offenders

focusing on protective factors

30

Focusing on Protective Factors
  • There are good reasons to believe that using positive youth development to focus on protective factors will help to reduce youth crime.
slide31

31

Research on Comprehensive Models

Supports the potential of a youth development approach to juvenile justice interventions

Hawkins and Weis“The Social Development Model: An Integrated Approach to Delinquency Prevention.” Journal of Primary Prevention

1985

slide32

32

Survey of Youth Assets (Univ. of OK)

Youth with more assets are less likely to report that they have carried a weapon

*14% of sample reported some weapon carrying

Aspy et al. (2004), Journal of Counseling and Development

slide33

Survey of Youth Assets (Univ. of OK)

Youth with more assets are less likely to report that they have previously used drugs/alcohol

  • Oman et al. (2004). American Journal of Public Health
search institute org
Search-Institute.org

Percentage of 6th- to 12th-Grade Youth Reporting Selected High-Risk Behaviors, by Level of Developmental Assets

slide35

35

Focusing Youth Justice on PYD

How do we transform youth justice systems to focus on practical ways of attaching youth to assets and facilitating positive youth development?

slide36

36

Very Different Perspectives

2010 report from cjj
2010 Report from CJJ

Butts, Jeffrey A., Gordon Bazemore, and Aundra Saa Meroe (2010) 

Positive youth justice: Framing justice interventions using the concepts of positive youth development

Washington, DC: Coalition for Juvenile Justice.

www.juvjustice.org

our model positive youth justice
Our Model: Positive Youth Justice

Source: Butts, Bazemore, and Meroe (2010)

slide39

39

Youth Development Approach May be an Evidence-Based Model Some Day

 Requires an accumulation of findings from numerous, high-quality studies. Depends on sustained investment by service providers, researchers, and funding sources.

contact information
Contact Information

Jeffrey A. Butts, Ph.D.

Director, Research & Evaluation CenterJohn Jay College of Criminal JusticeCity University of New York

www.jjay.cuny.edu/rec

[email protected]

www.jeffreybutts.net

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