Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children
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Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children ’ s television commercials: Korea and Hong Kong. Young Sook Moon Hanyang University & Kara Chan Hong Kong Baptist University.

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Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children ’ s television commercials: Korea and Hong Kong

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Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children’s television commercials: Korea and Hong Kong

  • Young Sook Moon

  • Hanyang University

  • &

  • Kara Chan

  • Hong Kong Baptist University

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

  • Stereotypes in children’s advertising is believed to have potential impact on gender socialization, children’s views of themselves and other people

  • Gender role portrayal in advertising is well studied in some western countries

  • cross-cultural variation in gender stereotyping in children advertising was neglected

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

  • Many multinationals start to view Asian countries as a single regional market:

    fast development of communications

    more flattening of income, education,

    opportunity to travel and exposure to other

    cultures

  • Asia is really a series of localized markets with their own characteristics

  • Korea and Hong Kong differ in:

    history, culture, language

    advertising rules and regulations

gender protrayal


Gender socialization

Gender Socialization

  • Several theories to account for gender differences:

    cultural explanation: established through

    childhood socialization process

    structural explanation: arise from common

    positions in social structures

    social role theory: men and women behave

    according to the stereotypes associated

    with social roles they occupy

    (a more flexible perspective)

gender protrayal


Hofstede s typology

Hofstede’s typology

  • Five cultural dimensions:

    individualism/collectivism

    power distance

    uncertainty avoidance

    masculinity/femininity

    long/short term orientation

  • This study focuses on the Masculinity/femininity dimension

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

Masculinity Index (MAS)

Korea Hong Kong

39 57

Feminine Masculine

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

  • Research question

  • How does the gender portrayal differ in children’s commercials in Korea and Hong Kong?

    preference for masculine or

    feminine values in a culture

    gender differentiation

    (whether there is sharp distinction between

    the roles of men and women)

  • Method: Content analysis of TVC

gender protrayal


Hypotheses

Hypotheses

  • H1: Characters in commercials are more likely to be portrayed in relationships with others in Korea (feminine society) than in Hong Kong (masculine society)

  • H2: Characters are more likely to be portrayed in work situations in Hong Kong than in Korea.

  • H3: There will be more sex-role differences between male and female characters in Hong Kong than in Korea.

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

  • Sample

  • N=345, unduplicated

    Korea: commercials of children’s

    programming from KBS2, MBC and SBS

    channels

    Hong Kong: 40 hours of children’s

    programming from TVB-Jade and ATV-

    home channels

  • Public services announcements, station identification and promotional messages were excluded

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

  • Two levels of coding

  • Each commercial, code:

    Product category, product user, sex of

    voice-over, music, presence of central

    characters, setting and reward type

  • Each central character (a child, adult, or cartoon human character appears most), up to two CCs, code:

    Character type, sex, age, role, employment

    status, activity, and whether he/she is a

    spokesperson

  • coded by two pairs of trained coders,

  • intercoder reliability ranged from 0.8 to 1

gender protrayal


Table 1 sample profile n 345

%

%

37.9

34.0

19.2

9.5

15.7

14.3

9.1

4.8

7.6

7.5

7.1

8.8

1.5

12.2

2.0

8.8

Table 1. Sample profile (N=345)

Korea

(N=198)

Hong Kong

(N=147)

Product category

Snack food

Drink

Toys and character toys

Fast food

Entertainment

Education tools and services

Medicine and personal goods

Others

Chi-square: 32.7; p<0.001

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

  • Product user

  • Korean sample:

    12 (6.1%) for male

    14 (7.1%) for female

    172 (86.9%) for both

  • Hong Kong sample:

    15 (10.2%) for male

    6 (4.1%) for female

    126 (85.7%) for both

  • No significant difference

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

  • Voice over

  • Korean sample:

    82 (41.4%) use male voice(s)

    72 (36.4%) use female voice(s)

    16 (8.1%) use male and female voices

    28 (14.1%) no voice over

  • Hong Kong sample:

    81 (55.1%) use male voice(s)

    29 (19.7%) use female voice(s)

    9 (6.1%) use male and female voices

    28 (19%) no voice over

gender protrayal


Central characters

Central characters

  • Altogether 372 CC coded

  • Korean sample: 109 male CC (48%), 116 female CC (52%)

  • Hong Kong sample: 80 male CC (54%), 67 female CC (46%)

  • No significant difference

gender protrayal


Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials korea and hong kong

Relationship

  • Korean sample: 137 (61%) are in relationship roles, 88 (39%) are in independent roles

  • Hong Kong sample: 90 (61%) are in relationship roles, 57 (39%) are in independent roles

  • No significant difference, H1 rejected

gender protrayal


Employment status

Employment Status

  • Korean sample: 18 (8%) are in working roles, 207 (92%) are in non-working roles

  • Hong Kong sample: 11 (8%) are in working roles, 136 (92%) are in non-working roles

  • No significant difference, H2 rejected

gender protrayal


Sex role difference

Sex-role difference

  • Korean sample: no significant difference in the roles, recoded roles, employment and sex of spokesperson, significant difference in the activities of CC

  • Hong Kong sample: did not show great sex-role difference between male and female CC

  • H3 rejected

gender protrayal


Results of hypotheses testing

Hypothesis

F-stat.

0.004

N.S.

No

0.03

N.S.

No

No

Results of hypotheses testing

Sign.

level

Supported

H1: relationship

H2: employment status

H3: sex role differences

gender protrayal


Discussion

Discussion

  • A country’s “gender” failed to predict the gender role portrayals of relationships

  • Possible explanations:

    the standardization of advertising strategy in

    the Asian Market

    heavy use of celebrity endorsement in

    children’s commercials in Korea

    women’s issues and rights are more in

    concern in today’s Korea

    work roles are seldom featured as children

    are not familiar with work

gender protrayal


Conclusion further research

Conclusion & Further Research

  • Concept of “gender of nations” needs further examination

  • Application of Hofstede to marketing and advertising research is subject to trial and error

  • The current study can be repeated for adult’s commercials to see if there is any difference

gender protrayal


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