Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children
Download
1 / 20

Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials: Korea and Hong Kong - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 168 Views
  • Uploaded on

Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children ’ s television commercials: Korea and Hong Kong. Young Sook Moon Hanyang University & Kara Chan Hong Kong Baptist University.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children s television commercials: Korea and Hong Kong' - wynonna


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Cross cultural study of gender portrayal in children’s television commercials: Korea and Hong Kong

  • Young Sook Moon

  • Hanyang University

  • &

  • Kara Chan

  • Hong Kong Baptist University

gender protrayal


  • Stereotypes in children’s advertising is believed to have potential impact on gender socialization, children’s views of themselves and other people

  • Gender role portrayal in advertising is well studied in some western countries

  • cross-cultural variation in gender stereotyping in children advertising was neglected

gender protrayal


  • Many multinationals start to view Asian countries as a single regional market:

    fast development of communications

    more flattening of income, education,

    opportunity to travel and exposure to other

    cultures

  • Asia is really a series of localized markets with their own characteristics

  • Korea and Hong Kong differ in:

    history, culture, language

    advertising rules and regulations

gender protrayal


Gender socialization
Gender Socialization single regional market:

  • Several theories to account for gender differences:

    cultural explanation: established through

    childhood socialization process

    structural explanation: arise from common

    positions in social structures

    social role theory: men and women behave

    according to the stereotypes associated

    with social roles they occupy

    (a more flexible perspective)

gender protrayal


Hofstede s typology
Hofstede’s typology single regional market:

  • Five cultural dimensions:

    individualism/collectivism

    power distance

    uncertainty avoidance

    masculinity/femininity

    long/short term orientation

  • This study focuses on the Masculinity/femininity dimension

gender protrayal


Masculinity Index (MAS) single regional market:

Korea Hong Kong

39 57

Feminine Masculine

gender protrayal


  • Research question single regional market:

  • How does the gender portrayal differ in children’s commercials in Korea and Hong Kong?

    preference for masculine or

    feminine values in a culture

    gender differentiation

    (whether there is sharp distinction between

    the roles of men and women)

  • Method: Content analysis of TVC

gender protrayal


Hypotheses
Hypotheses single regional market:

  • H1: Characters in commercials are more likely to be portrayed in relationships with others in Korea (feminine society) than in Hong Kong (masculine society)

  • H2: Characters are more likely to be portrayed in work situations in Hong Kong than in Korea.

  • H3: There will be more sex-role differences between male and female characters in Hong Kong than in Korea.

gender protrayal


  • Sample single regional market:

  • N=345, unduplicated

    Korea: commercials of children’s

    programming from KBS2, MBC and SBS

    channels

    Hong Kong: 40 hours of children’s

    programming from TVB-Jade and ATV-

    home channels

  • Public services announcements, station identification and promotional messages were excluded

gender protrayal


  • Two levels of coding single regional market:

  • Each commercial, code:

    Product category, product user, sex of

    voice-over, music, presence of central

    characters, setting and reward type

  • Each central character (a child, adult, or cartoon human character appears most), up to two CCs, code:

    Character type, sex, age, role, employment

    status, activity, and whether he/she is a

    spokesperson

  • coded by two pairs of trained coders,

  • intercoder reliability ranged from 0.8 to 1

gender protrayal


Table 1 sample profile n 345

% single regional market:

%

37.9

34.0

19.2

9.5

15.7

14.3

9.1

4.8

7.6

7.5

7.1

8.8

1.5

12.2

2.0

8.8

Table 1. Sample profile (N=345)

Korea

(N=198)

Hong Kong

(N=147)

Product category

Snack food

Drink

Toys and character toys

Fast food

Entertainment

Education tools and services

Medicine and personal goods

Others

Chi-square: 32.7; p<0.001

gender protrayal


  • Product user single regional market:

  • Korean sample:

    12 (6.1%) for male

    14 (7.1%) for female

    172 (86.9%) for both

  • Hong Kong sample:

    15 (10.2%) for male

    6 (4.1%) for female

    126 (85.7%) for both

  • No significant difference

gender protrayal


  • Voice over single regional market:

  • Korean sample:

    82 (41.4%) use male voice(s)

    72 (36.4%) use female voice(s)

    16 (8.1%) use male and female voices

    28 (14.1%) no voice over

  • Hong Kong sample:

    81 (55.1%) use male voice(s)

    29 (19.7%) use female voice(s)

    9 (6.1%) use male and female voices

    28 (19%) no voice over

gender protrayal


Central characters
Central characters single regional market:

  • Altogether 372 CC coded

  • Korean sample: 109 male CC (48%), 116 female CC (52%)

  • Hong Kong sample: 80 male CC (54%), 67 female CC (46%)

  • No significant difference

gender protrayal


Relationship single regional market:

  • Korean sample: 137 (61%) are in relationship roles, 88 (39%) are in independent roles

  • Hong Kong sample: 90 (61%) are in relationship roles, 57 (39%) are in independent roles

  • No significant difference, H1 rejected

gender protrayal


Employment status
Employment Status single regional market:

  • Korean sample: 18 (8%) are in working roles, 207 (92%) are in non-working roles

  • Hong Kong sample: 11 (8%) are in working roles, 136 (92%) are in non-working roles

  • No significant difference, H2 rejected

gender protrayal


Sex role difference
Sex-role difference single regional market:

  • Korean sample: no significant difference in the roles, recoded roles, employment and sex of spokesperson, significant difference in the activities of CC

  • Hong Kong sample: did not show great sex-role difference between male and female CC

  • H3 rejected

gender protrayal


Results of hypotheses testing

Hypothesis single regional market:

F-stat.

0.004

N.S.

No

0.03

N.S.

No

No

Results of hypotheses testing

Sign.

level

Supported

H1: relationship

H2: employment status

H3: sex role differences

gender protrayal


Discussion
Discussion single regional market:

  • A country’s “gender” failed to predict the gender role portrayals of relationships

  • Possible explanations:

    the standardization of advertising strategy in

    the Asian Market

    heavy use of celebrity endorsement in

    children’s commercials in Korea

    women’s issues and rights are more in

    concern in today’s Korea

    work roles are seldom featured as children

    are not familiar with work

gender protrayal


Conclusion further research
Conclusion & Further Research single regional market:

  • Concept of “gender of nations” needs further examination

  • Application of Hofstede to marketing and advertising research is subject to trial and error

  • The current study can be repeated for adult’s commercials to see if there is any difference

gender protrayal


ad