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Programming Technologies. . The first user programmable switch is the fuse used in simple PLDs.For high density devices (CPLDs, FPGAs), different approaches are used to achieve programmability.The properties of these programmable switches, such as size, volatility, process technology, on-resista

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1. CSE/EE 478 Digital Design using FPGAs Fall 2006 Lecture 05: FPGA Programming Technologies Vijay Narayanan

2. Programming Technologies

3. Antifuse

4. Poly-Diffusion Antifuse

5. Antifuse

6. Antifuse

7. Antifuse Disadvantages

8. Antifuse Resistance

9. Antifuse Reliability

10. Metal-Metal Antifuse

11. Metal-Metal Antifuse

12. Metal-Metal Antifuse

13. SRAM Technology

14. 6T SRAM Cell

15. 6T SRAM Cell Data stored in cross-coupled inverters One word line and two bit lines - Cell enabled when word = 1 - Bit lines carry data - Same port for read and write

16. Read operation Both bit and bit’ are precharged high When cell enabled bit’ discharged if 1 had been stored in the cell bit discharged if 0 had been stored in the cell Write operation To write 1, force bit’ to 0 which overpowers INV#2’s pMOS and drives INV#1’s output high, latching 1 in the cell

17. SRAM Technology

18. SRAM Advantages and Disadvantages

19. The Floating-gate transistor (FAMOS)

20. Floating-Gate Transistor Programming

21. Floating-Gate Transistor Programming

22. A “Programmable-Threshold” Transistor

23. Floating-Gate Transistor Programming

24. EPROM

25. Floating Gate Technology - EPROM

26. FLOTOX EEPROM

27. FLOTOX EEPROM

28. FLOTOX EEPROM

29. FLOTOX EEPROM

30. FLOTOX EEPROM

31. FLOTOX EEPROM

32. EEPROM Problem Removing too much charge fromfloating gate results in a depletion device that cannot be turned off by the standard word-line signals. Extra transistor is required to access the transistor and FLOTOX transistor is used only for storage (open or closed).

33. EEPROM Cell

34. Programming the EEPROM Cell

35. Reading the EEPROM Cell

36. EEPROM Advantages/Disadvantages

37. Flash EEPROM

38. Cross-sections of NVM cells

40. Basic Operations in a NOR Flash Memory?Write

41. Basic Operations in a NOR Flash Memory?Erase

42. Basic Operations in a NOR Flash Memory?Read

43. Comparison of Technologies

44. Comparison of Technologies

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