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EDN:204– Learning Process 30th August, 2010 B.Ed II(S) Sci ------------------------------------------------------------- Topics: Cognitive views of Learning Cognitive developmental theories developmentally appropriate learning experiences cognitive apprenticeship

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  • EDN:204– Learning Process

  • 30th August, 2010

  • B.Ed II(S) Sci

  • -------------------------------------------------------------

  • Topics:Cognitive views of Learning

  • Cognitive developmental theories

    • developmentally appropriate learning experiences

    • cognitive apprenticeship

    • Zone of proximal development

    • scaffolding


  • Developmentally appropriate learning experiences

  • Cognitive developmental theories of learning

  • strongly support the belief that any learning

  • experiences should be appropriately designed and

  • organized to ensure that children experience

  • meaningful and joyful experiences.

  • Developmentally appropriate teaching ensures

  • success in the early grade.


Four major areas for developmentally appropriate learning experiences:

  • Environment(Classroom)

  • Contains areas in which children can select and

  • plan their activities

  • Have areas for quiet and active social

  • interactions.

  • Contains clearly labeled areas with words and

  • pictures to encourage independence.



  • Constructing developmentally appropriate curriculum

  • Integrated across all domains of child development

  • (physical, social, emotional, linguistic, and

  • cognitive)

  • Relevant, meaningful, and based on prior

  • experiences allowing children to make

  • connections.

  • Is challenging yet achievable with sufficient adult

  • support.


  • Designed to allow children to be active learners

  • Integrated across content areas.

  • 3. Instructional Strategies

  • Include a balance of active and passive activities

  • Offer variety of novel experiences, stimulating

  • ideas, and opportunities for problem solving.


  • Encourage children to choose and plan their own

  • learning activities.

  • Model and demonstrate specific skills.

  • Provide a balance between self-initiated and

  • teacher directed learning.

  • Encourage children to revisit and reflect on their

  • learning experiences.


4. Assessment

  • Helps to show progress and growth over time.

  • Observation and evaluation of each student’s

  • learning styles are keys to assessing learning

  • growth.

  • Is standard based and authentic.

  • Teachers and parents share useful information

  • about children’s learning strengths and needs.

  • Is ongoing with many opportunities for the

  • teachers to observe and reflect on students’

  • accomplishments.


COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIP

Is a method of teaching aimed primarily at teaching the processes that expert use to handle complex task.

Methods

  • i. Modeling: Involves an expert’s carrying out a task.

  • ii. Coaching: Observing students while they carry

  • out a task.

  • iii. Articulation: Getting students to articulate their

  • knowledge, reasoning, or problem-solving

  • processes.


  • iv. Reflection: Enables students to compare their

  • own problem-solving processes with others.

  • v. Exploration: Involves pushing students into a

  • mode of problem solving on their own.


Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

“ Is the distance between what children can do by themselves and the next learning that they can be helped to achieve with competent assistance” (Raymond, 2000., p.176)

  • SCAFFOLDING

  • “It is the role of teachers and others in supporting the learner’s development and providing support structures to get to that next stage or level”

  • It facilitates a student’s ability to build on prior knowledge and internalize new information.



Gestalt Theory

Origin: The work of Max Wertheimer and his students Kohler & Koffka.

  • Gestalt is a German word for “pattern”, “figure”, “shape”, or “form”, which refers to wholes, systems and complete structures rather than seeking ever smaller components of a phenomenon.


In learning, it concentrates on the way in which the mind insists on finding patterns in things, and how this contributes to learning, especially the development of “insight”.

Learning is seen as the understanding of a total, meaningful relationship in a given situation.

  • What do you see in these figure?


SEAL OR HORSE? insists on finding patterns in things, and how this contributes to learning, especially the development of “insight”.


We perceive objects as well-organized patterns rather than separate components.

“The whole is greater than the sum of it’s parts.”


How we recognize patterns and give meaning to sensory events are being explained by the terms – Bottom-up and Top-down processing.

  • Bottom-up Processing (figure analysis). This explanation suggests that we search a new stimulus for defining elements or features.

  • Top-down Processing: We do not need to analyze every feature in a particular stimulus to make sense of it.


Essentials of a Gestalt approach for education: are being explained by the terms –

For teachers:

  • Provide for insightful learning, which is the

  • key to effective meaningful learning.

  • Structure the learning environment with

  • materials necessary for satisfactory

  • discoveries to be made, such as in learning

  • centers.

  • Motivate learners through their intrinsic

  • interest in solving problems.


  • Deal with principles rather than specifics. are being explained by the terms –

  • Demonstrate how abstract principles can be

  • drawn from specific concrete examples.

  • For learners:

  • Actively search for pattern in apparently

  • unconnected materials.

  • Brainstorm the draw together ideas into

  • similar or dissimilar concepts.

  • Create puzzles for others to solve.


Gestalt principles of visual perception

We impose visual organization on stimuli are being explained by the terms –

Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception

W.E. Hill, 1915

German postcard, 1880


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