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Reflexes. Reflexes. Normal reflexes depend on normal function in the nervous system There are two kinds of reflexes 1. Somatic or Deep reflexes A. stretch reflexes – achilles, patellar tendon reflexes B. withdrawal reflexes 2. Superficial or cutaneous reflexes. Testing reflexes.

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Reflexes1
Reflexes

  • Normal reflexes depend on normal function in the nervous system

  • There are two kinds of reflexes

    • 1. Somatic or Deep reflexes

      • A. stretch reflexes – achilles, patellar tendon reflexes

      • B. withdrawal reflexes

  • 2. Superficial or cutaneous reflexes


Testing reflexes
Testing reflexes

  • Use the flat end of the reflex hammer!

  • Use a sharp, quick tap – don’t be a wimp!

  • Sometimes you can’t observe a reflex – don’t panic, it’s probably you or your “patient” is nervous and not relaxed

  • An absent reflex could mean a delay or prevention of sensory transmission along a lower motor neuron

    • But hypothyroidism can also produce this

  • An overactive reflex can result from disruptions in the upper motor neurons in the spinal cord or brain

    • Can result from hyperthyroidism


Achilles reflex
Achilles Reflex

  • Tests the S1,S2 nerve roots and the sciatic nerve

  • Have your partner sit on a chair or table so that both feet hang over the edge

  • Locate the achilles tendon of the right foot and tap it with the reflex hammer

  • What happens?


Patellar
Patellar

  • Tests the L3,L4 nerve roots and the femoral nerve

  • Have your partner sit on a chair or table sp that both feet hang over the edge

  • Locate the patellar tendon of the right leg and tap it with the hammer

  • What happens?

  • Have your partner count down from 99 to 32

  • Tap it again – was the response greater or less?

  • Repeat this on the left leg?


Biceps reflex
Biceps Reflex

  • Tests the C5,C6 nerve roots and the musculocutaneous nerve

  • Have your partner rest their arm on a table with the palm facing up

  • Place your thumb on the biceps tendon – have your partner flex their forearm to help find it

  • Tap your thumbnail with the hammer

  • What happens?


Triceps reflex
Triceps reflex

  • Tests the C7,C8 nerve roots and the radial nerve

  • Have your partner flex one arm at the elbow and hold their arm

  • Tap the triceps tendon with the hammer using the pointed end

  • What happens?

  • Test each arm


Superficial reflex the babinski reflex
Superficial Reflex – The Babinski reflex

  • Using the handle of the hammer – stroke the underside of you partner’s foot using an upward motion from heel to toes

  • What happens?


Ciliospinal
Ciliospinal

  • Have one person sit in a chair – observe their pupils

  • Have another person unexpectedly touch a piece of ice to the back of the neck

  • What happens?


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