OSI Physical Layer. Network Fundamentals – Chapter 8. Fiber Media. Copper uses electrical voltage to represent data. Fiber-optic cable uses light pulses conducted through special glass conductors to carry data .
OSI Physical Layer
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Four common data communications standards that apply to wireless media:
■ Standard IEEE 802.11: Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi, 802.11 is a wireless LAN (WLAN) technology that uses a contention or nondeterministic system with a carrier sense multiple access/collision avoid (CSMA/CA) media access process.
■ Standard IEEE 802.15:Wireless Personal-Area Network (WPAN): Commonly known as Bluetooth, 802.15 uses a device-pairing process to communicate over distances from 1 to 100 meters.
■ Standard IEEE 802.16: Commonly known as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), 802.16 uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide wireless broadband access.
■ Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM): Includes physical layer specifications that enable the implementation of the Layer 2 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) protocol to provide data transfer over mobile cellular telephony networks.