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Exam #3 Voting. Wednesday, November 28 Friday, November 30. In the Beginning…. Today’s Talk. Talky stuff: In the beginning, science says… and God said … (by the numbers…) Do they say the same thing? Picture stuff:

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Exam #3 Voting

  • Wednesday, November 28

  • Friday, November 30


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In the Beginning…


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Today’s Talk

Talky stuff:

  • In the beginning, science says…

  • and God said…(by the numbers…)

  • Do they say the same thing?

    Picture stuff:

  • In the beginning, the next 13.7 billion years(mostly just really cool pictures)


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Detailed Overviewfor Today’s Talk

  • In the beginning, science says…

  • and God said…(by the numbers…)

  • Do they say the same thing?

  • In the beginning, the next 13.7 billion years(with really cool pictures)


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If you are aware of the earth and sky,

Ptolemy was right! Pretty much…


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Ptolemy (83-168AD):

Greek philosopher, earth centered universe

Planets are confusing “wondering stars”

“Misfit” data

is so IMPORTANT to engineers and scientists!


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1543 ADNicolaus Copernicus moved the earth:the sun become the center of the universe.


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1605 AD

Kepler mathematically determined the motion of planets around the sun. (Kelper’s Laws)

He also observed a super-nova


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1610 ADGalileo provided observational evidence to support the Copernican model…


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1910’s

  • The Milky Way was the Universe

  • The universe was “static” – not changing

  • Universe was eternal!

  • Modified relativity to match a static, eternal universe.


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1920’sEdwin Hubble

He was able to demonstrate that galaxies are “red shifted”

RED SHIFT: Galaxies are receding from us, further away=receding faster (raisin bread)


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Red Shift

  • Light emitted from stars has specific spectra

  • Doppler effect:

    • Object moving away are “red shifted” (longer wave length)

    • Objects moving towards are “blue shifted”


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Hubble’s discoveries

changed the universe!

(there exists moving extragalactic nebula…

The Universe is VERY BIG and Dynamic)


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Fr. Georges Lemaitre

1927 paper: A homogeneous universe of constant mass and growing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extragalactic nebulae

AND THE UNIVERSE WENT…


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BANG!


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THE

BIG BANG!


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Everything in the universe, matter, space, time...everything existed at an infinitesimal point

The universe has been expanding into itself ever since.


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The “Big Bang” theory is supported by 3 significant data:

  • “red shift” (Hubble already demonstrated this)

  • Ratio of H to He in the universe (1950’s)

  • Cosmic background radiation (1960’s)


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Hydrogen to helium ratio…


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Ralph Alpher, Robert Herman, et al. (and others)

  • Run the “expanding universe” clock backwards

  • The universe compresses and gets very very very hot!

  • These conditions are

    replicated in particle

    accelerators.


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The Clock Ticks…

0.01 seconds after “The Bang” the universe was about 1010K (a.k.a. hot).

  • fermions formed,

  • the universe expanded and cooled,

  • quarks started to combine forming neutrons and protons


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The Race Against Time…

  • By 1 second after “The Bang,” formation of protons and neutrons was completed. The era of “free particles begins” and lasts for ~200 seconds.

  • At this point, for every neutron, there are 6 protons.

  • The universe is too hot for neutrons and protons to form atomic nuclei.

  • WARNING:

    • Free neutrons (neutrons not in a nuclei) decay fast (10 minute half life).


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…3 minutes to 20 minutes…

  • A critical event occurs, without it occurring soon, the universe would contain 100% hydrogen for ever!

  • During this time period, temperature became “just right” to allow protons and neutrons to combine as atomic nuclei (previously, too hot; then too cold)

  • The universe transformed from the era of free particles to the era of atomic nuclei – preserving neutrons! (otherwise, we would never exist)


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…3 minutes to 20 minutes…

  • Also, while nuclei were forming, free neutrons were decaying into protons.

  • During these critical minutes, the proton to neutron ratio went from 6 to 1 and became 7 to 1.

  • This ratio is preserved to the present day.

7:1 Pro:Neu

75%H & 25%He

(by mass)

1 He

12 H


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25% He and 75% H!!!!

  • Knowledge gained in particle accelerators and theoretical physics predicts the universe would produce 25% helium and 75% hydrogen in the first few minutes of creation. Virtually, nothing else.

  • Looking “back in time” reveals these proportions existed in the early universe!

  • This was the 2nd critical piece of “big bang” data


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The Big Bang

Three key data:

  • Red Shift (Hubble, 1920’s)

  • 75% H, 25% He – Developed and confirmed in the 1940’s and 1950’s

  • Remaining: cosmic background radiation


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Cosmic Background Radiation

  • The universe was very very very hot

  • It has been expanding ever since….and getting colder.

  • We should be able to measure the temperature of the universe…


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Black Body Radiation


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The “misfit data”


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Persistence Pays Off…

  • 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson

  • Microwave work with Bell Labs

  • Observed “hiss” in their detector that they could not explain

  • Since it was isotropic – it seemed to be noise.

  • They persisted…


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  • Penzias and Wilson won the Nobel Prize in 1978 for detection of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation!

  • The universe is glowing at 2.73K

  • This was the 3rd great observation to confirm the Big Bang Theory!


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Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

Problem solved:

Almost perfectly uniform…but not quite…


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High resolution cosmic background radiation image from WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropic Probe)

Just the right amount of “inhomogeneity”

Temperature variations (DTemp ~ 0.005°C) indicates “clumping” of matter which resulted in galaxy formation


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Detailed Overviewfor Today’s Talk

  • In the beginning, science says…

  • and God said…(by the numbers…)

  • Do they say the same thing?

  • In the beginning, the next 13.7 billion years(with really cool pictures)


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Numbers are sometimes

“words” not always quantities!


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“1”

An example of a “qualitative” number in English:

We’re Number One!

“One” is not just a quanitity


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Biblical numbers……what do numbers mean?…how do we know this?


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Some Important Biblical “Numbers”

  • One (1) – God is One, there is only One God

  • Three (3) – Holy, Trinity

  • Four (3 and 1, 4) - creation

  • Seven (6 and 1, 3 and 4) – holy creation, complete, covenant

  • Seven and one more (7 and 1) – new creation

  • Twelve (12) and one more (God) – new nation


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A few examples…there are many more...


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“3” = Holy

  • There were 3 divisions of the Temple in Jerusalem: the Outer Court, the Holy Place, and the Holy of Holies

  • Jesus rose from the dead on the 3rd day.

  • There are three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity

  • Et cetera…


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“3 and 1” or “4” = creation

  • Lazarus spent 4 days in the tomb. Jesus, being divine, rose on the third day.

  • 4 rivers flowed from the garden of Eden


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“3 and 1” or “4” = creation

  • 4 women gave birth to the fathers of the 12 sons (tribes) of Israel

  • The 12 tribes of Israel camp divided into 4 parts when camping around the Tabernacle.

These examples tie “4” and “12” together


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“6 and 1” or “3 and 4” or “7”= holy/complete/covenant

  • {6+1} God created the world in 6 days and ceased work on the 7th.

  • {6+1} The Tabernacle was built in 6 days and dedicated on the 7th


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“7 and 1 more” = new creation

  • The temple was first dedicated on the 7th day, it was rededicated on the 8th day

  • {7+1} Tabernacle: 7 sacred items. Later… Temple of Solomon: same 7, plus 1 more (8)

  • Jewish male infants: circumcised on the 8th day; entering into a “new covenant life”

  • Jesus rose from the dead on the 8th day of the week (Sunday) ushering in the New Creation.


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“12 and 1” = new nation

  • The 12 tribes of Israel camped around God (in the tabernacle).

  • The 12 apostles gathered around Christ.


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Numbers are not just literary,

they transcend literature into reality…


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{3+1=4} There are 4 books of the Gospel, 3 are “synoptic” 1 is “spiritual.”

John

Matthew

Mark

Luke


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Past

“3” = Holy

Present

Future

  • There are 3 Monotheistic religions that are descendents of Abraham:

    Judaism, Christianity, Islam.

  • Most holy places: “3-dimensional” architecture

    • Judaism: the holy of holies (1 Kgs 6:20)

    • Islam: the Kaaba in Mecca

    • Christianity:

  • New Jerusalem (Rev 21:16)


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In the Beginning…

Genesis provides a multitude of examples for holy and creation: 3, 4, 6+1=7


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In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.  

And God said…


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1) Let there be light. God separated light from dark; God named light “day” and darkness “night.”

2) Let there be a vault to separate water from water; God named the vault “the sky.”

3) Let the water be gathered so that land may appear; produced vegetation; named “land” and “sea.”

4) Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate day from night, celestial objects to mark time.

5) Let water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the vault of the sky.

6) Let land produce living creatures.

7) Rest, blessed the seventh day and made it holy.


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The physical world was created in 4 days

God said let there be…

1) light

2) the sky

3) the sea and land, vegetation

4) celestial objects to mark time

5) fish and birds

6) land creatures

7) rest and worship

(4=creation)


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“3 and 1 = 4” 3 days w/o life, 1 day with. Life was created on the 3rd day.

God said let there be…

1) light

2) the sky

3) the sea and land, vegetation

4) celestial objects to mark time

5) fish and birds

6) land creatures

7) rest and worship

(3=holy) life is holy.


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God said let there be…

1) light

2) the sky

3) the sea and land, vegetation

4) celestial objects to mark time

5) fish and birds

6) land creatures

7) rest and worship

“3 and 1” – 4 types of life created in 3 days

“3 and 1” – life was created on 3 days over a 4 day span. Life was created (4) and is holy (3).


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Detailed Overviewfor Today’s Talk

  • In the beginning, science says…

  • In the beginning, and God said…

  • Do they say the same thing? One can only speculate…

  • In the beginning, the next 13.7 billion years(with really cool pictures)


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4 = creation

Asteroid belt

Kuiper belt objects

4 Rocky Planets

4 Gas Giants


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4 Rocky Planets

God said, let there be…

1) light

2) the sky

3) the sea and land, vegetation

4) celestial objects to mark time

God created the physical world in 4 days, on the 3rd day God created sea, land, and vegetation. The 3rd of the 4 rocky planets is the only one with a sea, land andvegetation.

3=holy (life) 3 and 1 = creation


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20th Century


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Einstein recognizes a “fourth dimension”: time

Three spatial dimension, 1 temporal

“SPACE-TIME”


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God said let there be…

1) light

2) the sky

3) the sea and land, vegetation

4) celestial objects to mark time

Einstein identifies the 4th dimension: time

On the 4th day God “creates time” and time is the “4th dimension.”


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Review of Biblical Numbers:

  • Four (3 and 1):

    • earthly, creation

  • Seven (6 and 1):

    • God and His creation (holy creation)

  • Seven and one more (7 and 1):

    • New creation

  • Twelve (12) and one more (God):

    • New nation


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In the beginning by the numbers:

  • In the beginning, the subatomic particles were created: 6 protons for each 1 neutron

  • Protons are “active/working” particles.

    • Elements are defined by the number of protons.

  • Neutrons are “neutral,” “inactive,” “resting”

  • In the beginning, God created the world in:

    • 6 days of work, 1 day of rest.


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In the beginning by the numbers:

  • In the beginning: subatomic particles.

  • In the “new beginning”: atomic nuclei

    • 7 protons for each 1 neutron

    • Biblical: 7 and 1 = new creation


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In the beginning by the numbers:

  • In the beginning, the 7:1 Proton-Neutron ratio resulted in created matter being by mass: 75% hydrogen and 25% helium

  • Put it another way: 3 parts H, 1 part He

  • Biblical: 3 and 1 = creation


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Helium is 4 times heavier than hydrogen.

1 He

12 H

By atomic count: 12 parts hydrogen to 1 part helium

Biblical: 12 and 1 = new nations


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Today’s Talk

Talky stuff:

  • In the beginning, science says…

  • In the beginning, and God said…

  • Do they say the same thing?

    Picture stuff:

  • In the beginning, the next 13.7 billion years(with really cool pictures)


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…but first, a word from our sponsor…


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Have you seen this?


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Star Parties:

a bunch of geeks

staying up all night

to look at the sky

Visit Rose City

Astronomer’s web page


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Andromeda Galaxy: the furthest “naked eye” object

Moon is superimposed, but the scale is correct in regards to apparent size.

Andromeda is Big.

2.2 million light years distant but visible under dark skies without a telescope!


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Big Bang!

Wait…75% H, 25% He….

…virtually nothing else???

There is more to life than

hydrogen and helium!

Thank your lucky stars!


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Elements lighter than iron are

created inside stars by fusion.


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Stellar Evolution

  • FUSION:

    Stars convert H in to He at their core

    He+He creates Be, Be+He creates C, C+He creates O…etc…

    Carbon and oxygen are stable

    Variation by 0.5% of the Strong Force renders this unstable – we couldn’t exist


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Stellar Evolution

  • Massive stars

    • large stars repeat this process

    • convert heavier elements into still heavier

    • outer shell cast out periodically

    • the nucleus of iron is most stable (lowest free energy). To fuse heavier elements requires energy input.


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Is the Universe Static?

NO WAY!

Really cool pictures show it is “living” and dynamic…

(thanks Hubble Telescope!)


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…for you were made from dust… Gn 3:19

Stellar nurseries…places like those of Sol’s birth-place…


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“Sharpless 2-106” in Cygnus


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Tarantula Nebula


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Eagle Nebula

Pillars of Creation


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Pillars of Creation

In the Eagle Nebula


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Deep inside the Eagle Nebula


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Orion Nebula


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Orion Nebula


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Deep inside the Orion Nebula


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Pleiades (very tiny dipper) – Subaru (Japanese)


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…and to dust shall you return. Gn 3:19

Planetary nebula (dying stars)…

our friend, Sol, will do this some day…


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Cats Eye Nebula


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Cat’s Eye Nebula


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Stellar Death

  • Death of a very large star (> 8 solar mass):

    • fusion in the core ends (no more fuel)

    • collapse occurs in 1/10 of a second!

    • Super Nova Explosion

      • For weeks the star is 109 brighter than the sun

      • Explosion energy fuses the heaviest elements


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Crab Nebula (Super Nova Remnant)Super Nova of 1054 AD, visible in daylight for 23 days,6000 light years distant

X-ray (Chandra)

Infrared (Spitzer)


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Crab Nebula

The Crab Nebula spans about 10 light-years.


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Cassiopeia A

Supernova of 1667 or 1680

Closest SNR to Earth


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Veil Nebula (shock wave interacting with interstellar medium)


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Supernova to be: Eta (h) Carinae


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Supernova to be: Eta (h) Carinae


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Supernova to be: Eta (h) Carinae


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Supernova to be: Eta (h) Carinae


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For you were made from dust and to dust shall you return… Gn 3:19galaxies are very dusty places…


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Dust (C, O, N, Fe, etc.)


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Andromeda Galaxy: 2,200,000 light years away


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Hubble Ultra-deep field. Almost everything shown is a galaxy


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  • Colliding Galaxies


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Antennae Galaxies Colliding


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  • Stephan’s Quintet

  • 300,000,000 light years

  • Pre-Dino


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Globular ClustersSurround Galaxies


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HOME!


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References

  • Astronomy Magazine: Oct 2007, Nov 2007

  • http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/29/science/space/29COSM.html?pagewanted=2

  • http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/BBNS.html

  • I. Iben Jr., A. Tutukov, The Lives of Stars, Sky and Telescope, Dec. 1997

  • Scientific American, October 2001

  • Scientific American, Life in the Universe, 1995

  • Hogan, The Little Book of the Big Bang, Capernican Press

  • Photo’s from Astronomy Picture of the Day: http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov:80/apod/astropix.html

  • All photos shown in this presentation are from various websites. Thanks Google, et al.


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Happy Thanksgiving!


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