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Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change
What social factors mobilize people to begin a social movement?
In your opinion, which social movement of the 20th century had the greatest impact on social change?
How many social movements have you witnessed in your lifetime?
What are the different types of crowds?
Social Movement Theories
Social Change in the Future
Collective behavior is voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values.
Collective behavior can take various forms, including crowds, mobs, riots, panics, fads, fashions, and public opinion.
What forms of collective behavior have you taken part in?
Structural factors that increase the chances of people responding in a particular way.
Timing in history of particular social event.
Breakdown in social control mechanisms and corresponding feeling of normlessness.
Casual crowds - people who happen to be in the same place at the same time.
Conventional crowds - people who come together for a scheduled event and share a common focus.
Protest crowds - crowds that engage in activities intended to achieve political goals.
Expressive crowds - people releasing emotions with others who experience similar emotions.
Acting crowds - collectivities so intensely focused that they may erupt into violent behavior.
Reform movements seek to improve society by changing an aspect of the social structure.
Revolutionary movements seek to bring about a total change in society.
Religious movements seek to produce radical change in individuals and typically are based on spiritual or supernatural belief systems.
Alternative movements seek limited change in some aspect of people's behavior.
Resistance movements seek to prevent or undo change that has already occurred.
Preliminary stage - people begin to become aware of a threatening problem.
Coalescence stage - people begin to organize and start making the threat known to the public.
Institutionalization stage - organizational structure develops.
1. A relatively large number of people who are in one another's immediate vicinity is a:
A relatively large number of people who are in one another's immediate vicinity is a crowd.
2. Relatively large gatherings of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time are a(n):
Relatively large gatherings of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time are a casual crowd.
3. Movements that seek to prevent change or to undo change that has already occurred are:
Movements that seek to prevent change or to undo change that has already occurred are resistance movements.
4. Movements that seek limited change in some aspect of people's behavior are:
5. ________ is based on the assumption that participants in social movements are rational people.
Resource mobilization theory is based on the assumption that participants in social movements are rational people.