class 6, 10/11/10 intro to statistical methods. research is research is systematic self-critical inquiry made public (Lawrence Stenhouse, 1981) challenging accepted or “received” knowledge (Alfred North Whitehead) figuring out what the devil people think they are up to (Geertz).
class 6, 10/11/10
intro to statistical methods
dimensions of research
model: a graphic explanation of a small part of the world
constructing a model
drawing a model
an introduction to statistics
computational shortages and bottlenecks across time (in the West)
some people in the history of statistics
some moments in history of statistics
Pearson’s 4 parameters
Parameters are not numbers like measurements. They can never be observed but can be inferred by how the measurements scatter. Parameter comes from the Greek for “almost measurements.” [Salsburg, D. (1981). The lady tasting tea. New York: Henry Holt.]
normal distribution (bell-shaped curved)
Krathwohl, ch 17: descriptive statistics
description by measurement
graphic representation of data
measures of central tendency
skewness: asymmetry in distribution
measures of dispersion & variability
standard score (z-score): raw score translated into distance from mean in SD units
derived (scale) score: translates standard scores into scale where all scores positive
stanine (standard nine): half a SD
in a normal distribution
measures of relationships
look at the plot
correlation and causation
other correlations for special conditions (beyond the scope of this course)
treatment of outliers
exploratory data analysis (Tukey, 1977)
reaction time speed
M: 3.65 .79
Sieber, ch. 5: Privacy
5.3 the right to privacy
5.4 behavioral definition of privacy
5.5 privacy and informed consent
5.7 brokered data
heading levels (62-63)
Contemporary Realities (1)
Cronbach (1975) observed, “It is the special task of the social scientist in each generation to pin down contemporary facts…[and] to realign culture’s view of [people] with present realities” (p. 126). Educational researchers study people interacting in culture. The realities we encounter daily continually change. . . .
Other People’s Children(2)
The most salient contemporary reality affecting early education and care in contemporary post-industrial societies is that increasingly large segments of these societies have given over the raising of their young children, from an increasingly early age, to others. At one time, only the rich did not raise their own children. Now, the large majority of children are being raised by others. Giving one’s children to others to raise is a new phenomenon for the working and middle classes.
Increasing numbers. (3) According to the US Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics, 57% of children age 3-5 in the US are in some kind of institutional early childhood care and education program. For children of mothers with college degrees or higher, the percentage rises to 73%. The percentage of children from 3-5 in at least one “weekly non-parental care arrangements,” which includes, in addition to institutional care, informal out-of-the-home care, for example, with baby sitters or relatives, or children in unlicensed day cares, rises to 73%.
Institutional Care. (4) Children in institutional care range . . . .
Becker ch 3
some writing tips
tips not from Becker
more good reasonably cheap food
this week free and cheap
directions to Homer Lake
In the middle of the ocean, there is a special place, which is a Dragon Gate. It has this wonderful property: Any fish that swims through it immediately turns into a dragon. However, the Dragon Gate does not look any different from any other part of the ocean. So you can never find it by looking for it. The only way to know where it is is to notice that the fish who swim through it become dragons. However, when a fish swims through the Dragon Gate and
becomes a dragon, it doesn’t look any different. It just looks like the same fish it was before. So you can’t tell where the Dragon Gate is by looking closely to find just where the change takes place. Furthermore, when fish swim through the Dragon Gate and become dragons, they don’t feel any different, so they don’t know that they have changed into dragons. They just are dragons from then on.
You could be a dragon!
(Howard Becker, 1998, pp. 218-219)