Classification
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Classification. Why do we classify things? Finding Order in Diversity Classification provides scientists and students a way to sort and group organisms for easier study. Taxonomy – branch of biology that deals with the classification and naming of living things

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Classification

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Classification

Classification


Classification1

  • Why do we classify things? Finding Order in Diversity

  • Classification provides scientists and students a way to sort and group organisms for easier study.

  • Taxonomy – branch of biology that deals with the classification and naming of living things

  • There are millions of organisms on the earth! (approximately 1.5 million have been already named)

Classification


Classification2

Classifying and Naming Organisms

Grouping organisms based on comparing characteristics makes it easer to study the diversity of live.

Binomial Nomenclature – 2 word system of identifying each kind of organism; avoids confusion

A. Carolus Linnaeus – founder of modern taxonomy; used structural similarities as a basis for his classification system

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Carolus Linnaeus

Why do biologists consider Linnaeus’s system an improvement over earlier systems?


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Classifying and Naming Organisms

Binomial Nomenclature (cont.)

B. Scientific Name – both names together

i. 1st name – genus (always capitalized)

ii. 2nd name – identifies species within the genus (lower case)

iii. Name is written in italics or underlined

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Linnaeus’s Classification System – hierarchical system from most inclusive to least inclusive are:

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This illustration shows how a grizzly bear, Ursusarctos, is grouped within each taxonomic category.

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Go to Fig. 18-4

What do the scientific names of the polar and grizzly bears tell you about their similarity to each other?

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Modern evolutionary classification

Linnaeus’s system was limited because similarities and differences were mainly visible

What was invented that helped to change the way scientists classify organisms?

Modern Evolutionary Classification


Modern evolutionary classification1

Evolutionary classification based on Darwin’s

Theory of Evolution – Decent with Modification

Species gradually change, or evolve, over time from

pre-existing species

Modern Evolutionary Classification


Modern evolutionary classification2

Classifying species based on easily observed adult traits can pose problems. Which of these organisms seem most alike?

Modern Evolutionary Classification


Modern evolutionary classification3

Cladograms – a diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among organisms based on shared derived characters (Fig. 18-7)

Modern Evolutionary Classification


Ways is which taxonomists classify

Structural – ex. Skeletal structure, leaf anatomy

Ways is which taxonomists classify


Ways is which taxonomists classify1

Structural – ex. Skeletal structure, leaf anatomy

Ways is which taxonomists classify


Ways is which taxonomists classify2

Behavioral – similar behaviors may indicate a close relationship – Fig. 18-8

American and African vultures look very much alike and were once classified together. American vultures have a peculiar behavior: When they get overheated, they urinate on their legs to cool down. The stork is the only other bird known to behave this way.

Ways is which taxonomists classify


Ways is which taxonomists classify3

Biochemical – information about DNA, RNA & proteins can be used to help determine relationships and can be used to estimate how long different species have been separated

Ways is which taxonomists classify

African Vulture American VultureWood Stork


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Cytological – cellular structure – ex. Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic, plant cell vs. animal cell

Ways is which taxonomists classify


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Embryological – early stages of development may show shared characteristics that are absent at the adult stages (Fig. 15-17 pg. 385)

Ways is which taxonomists classify


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Fossil Formation – establish relationships between modern-day species & those that lived years ago

Ways is which taxonomists classify


Carbon dating

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/tech/radiocarbon-dating.html?elq=c91efd4570264eeb936ce73b956ea24e&elqCampaignId=155

Carbon Dating


The major lineages of life

Arranging the diversity of life into the highest taxa is a work in progress. What is important to understand is that new information has reopened issues concerning biological diversity. Fig. 18-11

The Major Lineages of Life


The major lineages of life fig 18 12

Domains – the most inclusive categories, assigns more significance to the ancient evolutionary split between bacteria and archaea

The Major Lineages of Life – Fig. 18-12


Domain bacteria

Bacteria unicellular,

prokaryotic, cell

wall contains

peptidoglycan,

ecologically diverse

(free living or

parasitic; autotroph

or heterotroph;

anaerobic or

aerobic)

Domain Bacteria


Domain archaea

Archaea – unicellular, prokaryotic, cell wall lacks

peptidoglycan, most live in very extreme habitats

that are devoid of oxygen

Domain Archaea


Domain eukarya

  • Eukarya – consists of all organisms that are

  • eukaryotic; Kingdoms of this domain include

    • Protista

    • Fungi

    • Plantae

    • Animalia

Domain Eukarya


Kingdom fungi

Fungi – Eukaryote, Cell walls of chitin, Most multicellular; some unicellular; Heterotroph

Kingdom Fungi


Kingdom fungi1

Fungi – Eukaryote, Cell walls of chitin, Most multicellular; some unicellular; Heterotroph

Kingdom Fungi


Kingdom protista

Protista – Eukaryote, cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts; most unicellular, some colonial, some multicellular

Kingdom Protista


Kingdom plantae

Plantae – Eukaryote, cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts, multicellular, autotroph

Kingdom Plantae


Kingdom animalia

Animalia – Eukaryote, no cell walls or chloroplasts, multicellular, heterotroph

Kingdom Animalia


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