Environmental issues
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Environmental Issues. Sandi Tabor V.P. Government Affairs Lignite Energy Council. Environmental Issues. Water quality Waste management Air quality Global Climate Change. Water. Water is essential for use in the process of generating electricity Processes include Cooling water

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Environmental issues

Environmental Issues

Sandi Tabor

V.P. Government Affairs

Lignite Energy Council


Environmental issues1

Environmental Issues

  • Water quality

  • Waste management

  • Air quality

  • Global Climate Change


Water

Water

Water is essential for use in the process of generating electricity

  • Processes include

    • Cooling water

    • Steam turbines

    • Drinking / sanitary uses

    • Fire protection

  • Environmental impacts

    • Intake structure designs

    • Heat


Waste management

Waste Management

Coal Combustion Products (CCPs)

  • The solid residue left when combustible material is thoroughly burned includes:

    • Fly ash

    • Bottom ash

    • Boiler slag

  • Material generated through flue gascleaning

    • Flue gas desulfurization material - gypsum


Environmental issues

Beneficial Uses of Coal Combustion Products


Air quality

Air Quality

Federal Clean Air Act regulates criteria pollutants -

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards;

    • Carbon monoxide

    • Lead

    • Nitrogen dioxide

    • Particulate matter

    • Ozone

    • Sulfur dioxide


Air quality1

Air Quality

  • Clean Air Act:

    • Designed to protect citizens including the most sensitive (children, people with asthma & older adults) individuals from air pollution

Google Earth Emission file: http://www.epa.gov/air/emissions/where.htm


Sources of emissions

Sources of Emissions

Carbon Monoxide Emissions by Source Sector in North Dakota in 2005

Total Emissions

155,921

79,515

14,583

6,630

5,155

2,282

1,319

375

41

Tons

Source: EPA


Sources of emissions1

Sources of Emissions

Lead Emissions by Source Sector in North Dakota in 2005

Total Emissions

6

2

1

0

0

0

Tons

Source: EPA


Sources of emissions2

Sources of Emissions

Volatile Organic Compounds by Source Sector in North Dakota in 2005

Total Emissions

14,193

12,687

4,790

3,516

3,180

1,351

887

763

382

303

Tons

Source: EPA


Sources of emissions3

Sources of Emissions

PM2.5 Emissions by Source Sector in North Dakota in 2005

Total Emissions

36,533

8,436

6,397

5,745

4,590

1,998

785

764

386

110

Source: EPA

Tons


Particulate matter

Particulate Matter


Sources of emissions4

Sources of Emissions

Sulfur Dioxide Emissions by Source Sector in North Dakota in 2005

Total Emissions

137,372

12,013

5,996

3,123

443

50

27

21

Source: EPA

Tons


Sources of emissions5

Sources of Emissions

Nitrogen Oxides Emissions by Source Sector in North Dakota in 2005

Total Emissions

76,384

59,714

19,780

10,923

188

179

176

17

1

Source: EPA

Tons


Air is getting cleaner

Air is Getting Cleaner

  • Industry has met greater electric demand with increasingly cleaner technologies

Aggregate Emissions Decreased 54%

Since 1980

U.S. Energy Consumption 29%

Vehicle Miles Traveled 91%

U.S. GDP Increased 126%

Source: EPA data 2008


So 2 emissions trend in nd

200

Tons Per Year

185K

150

138K

100

Utility Total

50

51K

0

1998

2007

2013*

SO2 Emissions Trend in ND

Source: ND Department of Health

* Reductions estimated based on new scrubbers


Air quality tr national park

Air Quality - TR National Park


Nd lignite industry exceeding environmental expectations

ND Lignite Industry: Exceeding Environmental Expectations

North Dakota is one of only 12 states to meet all the federal ambient air quality standards

Source: EPA, May 1, 2010


Air monitoring activity

Air Monitoring Activity

  • Build your own “air monitors”

  • Materials:

    • Container (milk carton or coffee can)

    • String (for hanging) or pole

    • Black permanent marker

    • Vaseline

    • Hole punch

    • Magnifying lens


Mercury

Mercury

EPA’s concern about mercury

  • Bioaccumulates in food chain

  • Human exposure through fish consumption

  • Mercury is a neurotoxin

  • Selenium protects against mercury toxicity – ND soils are high in selenium


Selenium in soils

Selenium in Soils


Mercury is a global issue

Mercury is a Global Issue

Background: Mercury is a global issue

  • Estimated 4400-7500 tons emitted worldwide from all sources – natural & man-made

  • Estimated 1/3 from natural sources; 2/3 from human activities

  • U.S. contribution is about 3%

  • Nationwide coal-fired utilities account for about 48 tons - about 1% of worldwide total mercury release

  • North Dakota utilities account for 1 ton, about 0.02% of worldwide total mercury release


Mercury is a global issue1

Mercury is a Global Issue


Mercury deposition

Mercury Deposition

% contribution by non-U.S. sources, 2004


Regional haze

Regional Haze

  • Goal - return all national parks and wilderness areas (Class 1) to natural conditions by the year 2064

  • States - establish goals and emission reduction using best available retrofit technology (BART)


Regional haze1

Regional Haze

Regional Haze Sources

  • Fossil fuels combustion

  • Open burning

  • Agriculture

  • Unpaved roads

  • Oil and gas extraction

  • Motor vehicles


Regional haze2

Regional Haze

30 dV visibility vs 10 dV

Courtesy of ENSR


Regional haze3

Regional Haze

1.4 dVChange


Regional haze4

Regional Haze

Challenge for ND

  • Already clean air upon which to improve

  • Significant distances to Class I areas

  • Small industry base

  • Crop burning

  • Prairie fires

  • Unpaved roads


Environmental issues

Global Climate Change


Environmental issues

Controversy Abounds


Environmental issues

Web Sites of Interest

  • Environmental Protection Agency:http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:http://www.ipcc.ch/

  • Junk Science: All the Junk that’s Fit to Debunkhttp://junkscience.com/Features.html

  • Space and Science Research Center:http://www.spaceandscience.net/id16.html

  • The Skeptical Environmentalist – Bjorn Lomborghttp://www.lomborg.com


Issue in perspective

Issue in Perspective

Man-made 2.9%

  • Man-made carbon dioxide emissions are less than 3% of total annual CO2 emissions

Natural 97.1%

  • United States makes up 23% of the 2.9 percent


Sources of u s man made co 2

Sources of U.S. Man-made CO2

Commercial – 3%

Residential – 6%

Electricity – 40%

Industrial – 17%

Transportation – 34%

Source: EIA 2007


Sources of nd man made co 2

Sources of ND Man-made CO2

Residential – 2%

Commercial – 2%

Industrial – 24%

Electricity – 59%

Transportation – 13%

Source: EIA 2007


Sources of mn man made co 2

Sources of MN Man-made CO2

Commercial – 6%

Residential – 9%

Electricity – 34%

Industrial – 15%

Transportation – 36%

Source: EIA 2007


Co 2 emissions us vs china india 1990 2025

CO2 Emissions: US vs. China & India – (1990-2025)

2009

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual 2002 & International Energy Outlook 2005


Projected global energy demand

Projected Global Energy Demand

Projected 10-Year Growth in Per Capita Energy Use

33%

12%

4%

7%

5%

88%

13%

17%

36%

37%

20%

27%

EIA: 3.5 Billion People to Increase Energy Use by 60% in 10 Years


What is the problem

What is the Problem?

  • No commercially available technology to capture CO2 from pulverized coal power plants

  • Risks associated with sequestering the CO2 in geologic formations

  • Global issue requires global solution

  • Current solutions being considered by Congress not addressing economic impact


Co 2 storage activity

CO2 Storage Activity

  • Goal: Students learn about geologic sequestration as a technique used to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  • Objectives: Students will …

    • Understand geologic sequestration as an idea being considered to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

    • Use chemistry to simulate enhanced oil recovery


Solutions actions

Solutions - Actions

  • What can industry do?

  • What can government do?

  • What can consumers do?


What can industry do

What can industry do?

  • Develop cost-effective technology to capture CO2

  • Diversify energy resource mix

  • Work with Congress to ensure the passage of legislation that protects the environment and the economy

  • Encourage the transfer of technologies to third-world countries


Co 2 emission reductions

CO2 Emission Reductions

  • Electric companies are world leaders in taking voluntary actions to address GHG emissions

  • Electric industry leads all other U.S. industrial sectors in reducing CO2


What can government do

What can government do?

  • Develop regulations that are synchronized with technology development

  • Partner with industry to develop

    • CO2 capture technology for existing plants

    • Clean coal technology for new plants


What can consumers do

What can consumers do?

  • Change our energy appetites:

    • Energy efficiency (doing things smarter)

    • Energy conservation (doing with less)


Summary

Summary

A. North Dakota lignite industry exceeds environmental expectations

B. Important to maintain affordable and reliable electricity

  • The timing of federal legislation to solve global warming must be in sync with the development of technology to capture CO2


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