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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [ PHY Layer Submission for 802.15.3c ] Date Submitted: [7 May 2007] Source: [André Bourdoux, Stefaan Derore, Jimmy Nsenga, Wim Van Thillo - IMEC] Address [Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven, Belgium]

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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Submission Title: [PHY Layer Submission for 802.15.3c]

Date Submitted: [7 May 2007]

Source: [André Bourdoux, Stefaan Derore, Jimmy Nsenga, Wim Van Thillo - IMEC]

Address [Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven, Belgium]

Voice:[+32-16-288215], FAX: [+32-16-281515], E-Mail:[[email protected]]

Re: [TG3c technical requirements]

Abstract: []

Purpose: [Proposed PHY layer for IEEE802.15.3c 60 GHz WPANs]

Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.

Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15.

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Introduction
Introduction Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Proposal for the PHY layer of IEEE802.15.3c in response to CFP 07/586r2.

  • Targets the high data rates Requirements of TG3c (15-05-0353-07)

    • Up to 3 Gbps including overheads

    • 3 channels channelization

    • Suitable for integration in full CMOS

  • Carefull analysis to reduce 60 GHz front-end impact

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Criteria for good air interface
Criteria for good Air Interface Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Low cost

  • Low power consumption

  • Modest FE requirements

  • Low channel equalization complexity

André Bourdoux, IMEC


What is not in this presentation proposal
What is not in this presentation/proposal ? Area Networks (WPANs)

  • MAC impact or modifications

  • Preamble/pilot design

  • Specific mapping and/or coding scheme (e.g. unequal error protection) for the support of video

  • We concentrate on the careful selection of the modulation/equalization scheme towards low cost, low power consumption and easy system-on-a-chip implementation

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Air interface selection

PSK-based: Area Networks (WPANs)CP-M-PSK

CPM-based: CP-GMSK

Air interface selection

  • Battery-powered terminal

  • Power amplifier and DAC/ADC are critical power consumer

  • LOS or NLOS, directional or omni-directional antennas

  • Low-to-high multipath propagation

Optional CP forfrequency domain equalization

(Quasi-)constant envelope modulations

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Ofdm sc fde sc
OFDM / SC-FDE / SC Area Networks (WPANs)

Transmitter

Receiver

OFDM

IFFT

CPI

Channel

CPR

FFT

FDE

Demodulator

NLOS

CPI

Channel

CPR

FFT

FDE

IFFT

Demodulator

LOS - option 1Receiver “decides”

SC solution

CPI

Channel

CPR

Single-tap equalizer

Demodulator

LOS - option 2Transmitter “decides”

Channel

Single-tap equalizer

Demodulator

CPI: Cyclic Prefix Insertion CPR: Cyclic Prefix Removal SC: Single-carrier FDE: Frequency Domain Equalizer

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Cyclic prefix addition
Cyclic prefix addition Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Complexity is negligible

  • Requires buffering of small part of the payload data

  • CP length is programmable (0, 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 and 1/4)

  • Midamble for CP-GMSK ensures phase continuity

For CP-M-PSK:

Payloaddata N-1

CPN

Payloaddata N

CPN+1

Payloaddata N+1

For CP-GMSK:

Payloaddata N-1

CPN

Payloaddata N

CPN+1

Payloaddata N+1

Midamble(4 bits)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


M psk and cp m psk transmitter
M-PSK and CP-M-PSK Transmitter Area Networks (WPANs)

Coding & Mapping

2

Pulse shaping filter

DAC

Add CP

André Bourdoux, IMEC


M psk and cp m psk receiver
M-PSK and CP-M-PSK Receiver Area Networks (WPANs)

Single-tap time-domain equalizer

Digital filter

2

Demapping & Decoding

ADC

Remove CP

Freq-domain equalizer(FFT + equal. + IFFT)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Gmsk and cp gmsk transmitter
GMSK and CP-GMSK Transmitter Area Networks (WPANs)

Carrier frequency spacing: 2.3 GHz

Phase Accum.

Look-up table.

Coding & Mapping

2

Freq. shaping filter

DAC

Add CP and midamble

2πh

FM modulator

Can be approximated with QPSK like modulator

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Gmsk and cp gmsk receiver
GMSK and CP-GMSK Receiver Area Networks (WPANs)

Matched filter(1st Laurent pulse)

Detector

Soft / Hard

Channel Decoding

ADC

Remove CP

FFT

Equal.

Filter1st Laurent Pulse

IFFT

Midamble deletion

André Bourdoux, IMEC


System parameters 1
System parameters (1) Area Networks (WPANs)

  • CP-M-PSK

    • Block length: 512 symbols

    • CP length: 0, 16, 32, 64, 128 symbols

    • Maximum symbol rate: 1.667 Gsymb/s

    • Block duration: 307.2 ns (data) + 76.8 ns (CP)

    • TX filter roll-off: 0.2  BW = 2 GHz

    • Carrier spacing: (1+0.15)BW = 2.3 GHz

    • Bit rate (CP=25%, CR=3/4):

      • BPSK: 1 Gbps

      • QPSK: 2 Gbps

      • 8-PSK: 3 Gbps

André Bourdoux, IMEC


System parameters 2
System parameters (2) Area Networks (WPANs)

  • CP-GMSK

    • Block length: 512 symbols

    • CP length: 0, 16, 32, 64, 128 symbols

    • Maximum symbol rate: 1.667 Gsymb/s

    • Block duration: 307.2 ns (data) + 76.8 ns (CP)

    • CPM pulse shape: Gaussian, length 3

    • Carrier spacing: (1+0.15)BW = 2.3 GHz

    • Bit rate (CP=25%, CR=3/4): 1 Gbps

André Bourdoux, IMEC


System parameters 3
System parameters (3) Area Networks (WPANs)

Coded bit rate @ highest sample rate (3.333 Gsamples/s)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


System parameters 4 scalability
System parameters (4) - Scalability Area Networks (WPANs)

x 1/4

x 1/4

x 1/4

André Bourdoux, IMEC


System parameters 5 frequency plan
System parameters (5) – Frequency plan Area Networks (WPANs)

2.3 GHz

FS-A

575 MHz

FS-BFS-CFS-D

FS-B, FS-C and FS-D use same center frequencies

FS-B, FS-C and FS-D can exploit flat portion of spectrum  diversity gain

Simple synthesizer design

André Bourdoux, IMEC


PSDs Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Psd of m psk before pa
PSD of M-PSK before PA Area Networks (WPANs)

Carrier frequency spacing: 2.3 GHz

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Psd of m psk after pa
PSD of M-PSK after PA Area Networks (WPANs)

Carrier frequency spacing: 2.3 GHz

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Psd of gmsk before after pa
PSD of GMSK (before/after PA) Area Networks (WPANs)

Carrier frequency spacing: 2.3 GHz

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Ber and per performances
BER and PER performances Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Modeled non idealities combined

PSD Area Networks (WPANs)(dBc/Hz)

-87 dBc/Hz

-20 dB/decade

-140 dBc/Hz

1 MHz

Modeled non-idealities (combined)

  • PA: modified Rapp model

    • AM-AM: p = 1.1, G = 16 (12 dB)

    • AM-PM: q = 4.5, A = -885, B = 0.1665

  • ADC:

    • Resolution:

      • 5 bits ENOB for M-PSK

      • 4 bits ENOB for GMSK

    • Clipping level: 2xVrms

  • Phase noise:

    • -87 dBc/Hz

    • - 20 dB/dec from 1 MHz

    • -140 dBc/Hz floor

Δf (Hz)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Uncoded ber performances
Uncoded BER Performances Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Ideal case

    • CM13 – Single-tap time-domain equalizer (quasi LOS)

    • CM13 – Frequency-domain equalizer

    • CM23 – Frequency-domain equalizer

    • CM31 – Frequency-domain equalizer

  • Combined non-idealities (PA + ADC + Phase noise (with tracking))

    • CM13 – Single-tap time-domain equalizer (quasi LOS)

    • CM13 – Frequency-domain equalizer

    • CM23 – Frequency-domain equalizer

    • CM31 – Frequency-domain equalizer

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Uncoded ber ideal front end
Uncoded BER, ideal front-end Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Uncoded ber non ideal front end pa adc and pn
Uncoded BER, non-ideal front-end Area Networks (WPANs)(PA, ADC and PN)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Gmsk and cp gmsk sensitivity to non idealities
GMSK and CP-GMSK Area Networks (WPANs)Sensitivity to non-idealities

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Bpsk and cp bpsk sensitivity to non idealities
BPSK and CP-BPSK Area Networks (WPANs)Sensitivity to non-idealities

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Qpsk and cp qpsk sensitivity to non idealities
QPSK and CP-QPSK Area Networks (WPANs)Sensitivity to non-idealities

André Bourdoux, IMEC


8 psk and cp 8 psk sensitivity to non idealities
8-PSK and CP-8-PSK Area Networks (WPANs)Sensitivity to non-idealities

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Coded ber per performances
Coded BER/PER Performances Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Ideal case

    • CM13 – Single-tap time-domain equalizer (quasi LOS)

    • CM13 – Frequency-domain equalizer

    • CM23 – Frequency-domain equalizer

    • CM31 – Frequency-domain equalizer

  • Combined non-idealities (PA + ADC + Phase noise (with tracking))

    • CM13 – Single-tap time-domain equalizer (quasi LOS)

    • CM13 – Frequency-domain equalizer

    • CM23 – Frequency-domain equalizer

    • CM31 – Frequency-domain equalizer

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Coded ber ideal front end
Coded BER, ideal front-end Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Coded ber non ideal front end pa adc and pn
Coded BER, non-ideal front-end Area Networks (WPANs)(PA, ADC and PN)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Coded per ideal front end

PER = 0.08 Area Networks (WPANs)

PER = 0.08

PER = 0.08

PER = 0.08

Coded PER, ideal front-end

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Coded per non ideal front end pa adc and pn

PER = 0.08 Area Networks (WPANs)

PER = 0.08

PER = 0.08

PER = 0.08

Coded PER, non-ideal front-end(PA, ADC and PN)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Link budget sensitivity
Link budget, Sensitivity Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Example link budget bpsk
Example link budget - BPSK Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Example link budget qpsk
Example link budget - QPSK Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Example link budget 8 psk
Example link budget – 8-PSK Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Range for different modes antenna gains
Range for different modes / antenna gains Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Sensitivity for all modes all channels
Sensitivity for all modes, all channels Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Individual non idealities
Individual non-idealities Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Modeled for CM13-LOS and CM23

  • Non-idealities:

    • PA

    • ADC

    • Phase noise compensated

    • “similar signal” in adjacent bands

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Pa effect

CM23 Area Networks (WPANs)

CM23

CM23

LOS

LOS

LOS

PA effect

5 dB back-off is enough

3 dB back-off is acceptable

CPM is unaffected

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Effect of phase noise

CM23 Area Networks (WPANs)

CM23

CM23

CM23

LOS

LOS

LOS

LOS

Effect of Phase noise

-85 dBc/Hz is enough

-87 dBc/Hz preferred for 8-PSK

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Effect of adjacent channel interference

CM23 Area Networks (WPANs)

CM23

CM23

CM23

LOS

LOS

LOS

LOS

Effect of Adjacent channel interference

+35 dB ACI is ok for most cases

+30 dB for 8-PSK

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Effect of adc 4 bits

CM23 Area Networks (WPANs)

CM23

CM23

CM23

LOS

LOS

LOS

LOS

Effect of ADC (4 bits)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Effect of adc 5 bits

CM23 Area Networks (WPANs)

CM23

CM23

CM23

LOS

LOS

LOS

LOS

Effect of ADC (5 bits)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Effect of adc 3 bits

CM23 Area Networks (WPANs)

CM23

LOS

LOS

Effect of ADC (3 bits)

For CPM and BPSK, 3 bits is ok

For QPSK 4 bits is ok

For 8-PSK, 5 bits is needed in multipath

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Impact of adc on sc and ofdm
Impact of ADC on SC and OFDM Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Baseband sample rate = 3.333 Gsps for the 3 modes

  • SC-8PSK: 3 Gbits/s

  • OFDM-8PSK: 2.4 Gbits/s

  • OFDM-16QAM: 3.2 Gbits/s

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Impact of pa on sc and ofdm
Impact of PA on SC and OFDM Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Baseband sample rate = 3.333 Gsps for the 3 modes

  • SC-8PSK: 3 Gbits/s

  • OFDM-8PSK: 2.4 Gbits/s

  • OFDM-16QAM: 3.2 Gbits/s

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Manufacturability
Manufacturability Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Zero if transceiver
Zero-IF Transceiver Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Analog transceiver power consumption
Analog Transceiver power consumption Area Networks (WPANs)

Transceiver for (CP-)M-PSK and CP-GMSK

10 dBm output

45 nm CMOS process

(External PA in other technology)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Analog transceiver power consumption1
Analog Transceiver power consumption Area Networks (WPANs)

Transceiver for (CP-)GMSK

4dBm output

45 nm CMOS process

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Digital receivers power consumption
Digital Receivers power consumption Area Networks (WPANs)

45 nm CMOS process

(channel estimation, synchronization not included)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Conclusion 1
Conclusion (1) Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Single carrier modulation can flexibly cope with LOS and non-LOS channels

  • Avoids PAPR problem of OFDM low cost, low power ADC and PA

  • CPM (GMSK) is overall winner in LOS case (ADC 3 bits, 0 dB back-off)

  • CPM is easily combined in DSP architecture

  • M-PSK modes provide higher rates and multipath resistance with FDE

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Conclusion
Conclusion Area Networks (WPANs)

  • Single-carrier approach is easily upgradable to higher constellations (QAM)

  • Two classes of devices possible:

    • For LOS scenarios (simple receiver)

    • For NLOS scenarios (frequency domain equalizer)

  • Easy manufacturability in cheap 45 nm CMOS processes

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Back-up Slides Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Cpm parameters reminder
CPM parameters reminder Area Networks (WPANs)

log2M bits/symbol

Pulse shape and length(rect, raised cos, gaussian, …)

[Anderson, “Digital Phase Modulation”, 1986, Springer (Plenum Press)]

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Achieving spectral efficiency with cpm
Achieving spectral efficiency with CPM Area Networks (WPANs)

3COS,M=4,h=0.25

Good spectral performance

3COS,M=2,h=0.5Low complexity

3COS,M=4,h=0.5 Good error performance

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Ofdm vs sc
OFDM vs SC Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


Double cp and fft length for cm31
Double CP and FFT length for CM31 Area Networks (WPANs)

André Bourdoux, IMEC


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