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Homework. Reading about Mussolini Answer all questions DO IT!. Life under the Tsar. For 300 years, Russia had been ruled by the Romanov family. Most people in Russia were serfs, who worked the land owned by wealthy landowners. No food, education, or healthcare for common people.

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  • Reading about Mussolini

  • Answer all questions

  • DO IT!

Life under the tsar

Life under the Tsar

  • For 300 years, Russia had been ruled by the Romanov family.

  • Most people in Russia were serfs, who worked the land owned by wealthy landowners.

  • No food, education, or healthcare for common people.

  • Workers joined local councils called soviets

  • Protests were common.

Life under the tsar1

Life under the Tsar

  • Russia was very hurt by WWI

    • Food, fuel, and housing shortages (Total War)

    • The Russian Army was not well equipped for war

      • 1.7 million soldiers died.

      • 5 million injured

  • By 1917, the people of Russia angry with the Tsar (king). They’ve had enough!

Don t forget rasputin

Don’t forget Rasputin!

  • Russians felt that Rasputin was running the country.

  • They viewed the Tsar as a weak leader

Two revolutions

Two Revolutions

  • March 1917

    • The Tsar sends soldiers to put down a protest. The soldiers decide to side with the protestors.

    • Tsar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate (resign/quit).

    • The new government kept Russia in the war, which upset the people of Russia.

Two revolutions1

Two Revolutions

  • November 1917 (only 6 months later)

    • The new government is failing, and the Bolsheviks take control.

    • They immediately pull Russia out of WWI.

    • They promise to give land to the people, and give government power to the Soviets.

Two revolutions2

Two Revolutions

  • November 1917 (only 6 months later)

    • Renames Russia the Soviet Union (USSR)

    • Wanted to create a Communist state, where everyone was equal.

    • Communism is a form of Socialism

Vladmir lenin

Vladmir Lenin

  • Born 1870

  • Leader of the Bolsheviks

  • Dedicated to violent revolution

  • Been in exile since 1897

  • “Peace, Land, Bread, NOW!”

What is socialism

What is Socialism?

  • Economic System

  • Means of production (factories, farms, railroads, large companies) are owned and operated by the workers

What is socialism1

What is Socialism?

  • Socialism is a system based on the belief that prosperity in a country should benefit all members of society equally

  • Goal is to eliminate rich and poor.

  • Everyone should be economically equal, so all resources should be divided equally.


Socialism vs capitalism

In theory, everybody owns property and businesses together

In theory, everyone is equal

Single class system

Gov’t controls prices and supplies of goods

Gov’t divides resources equally among all people

Private ownership, individuals own business and property

Economic mobility, can move between classes

Multi-class system

Prices and supplies of goods controlled by supply and demand

Gov’t has limited or no regulation of economy

Socialism vs. Capitalism

Socialism vs capitalism1

Socialism vs. Capitalism

  • SOCIALism

    • Social = many people

  • CAPITALism

    • Capital = money



  • Communism

    • Political form of Socialism

    • Originally created by a German named Karl Marx.

    • The “have nots,” (the working class proletariat,) should resist the “haves” of the business class (owners = bourgeoisie)

  • In the Soviet Union, Communists were called “Reds”

  • Red = Communism



  • Ultimate goal of communism is to create a classless (socialist) society where, in theory, everybody is equal.

  • Their symbol was the hammer and sickle

  • Hammer represented the workers

  • Sickle represented the farmers


  • In death, Lenin becomes a mythic hero.

Rise of josef stalin

Rise of Josef Stalin

  • After Lenin’s death, Josef Stalin took power as a ruthless dictator.

  • Stalin’s Soviet government controlled all businesses and financial resources

Josef stalin

Josef Stalin

  • Stalin means “Man of Steel”

  • Began many programs to improve industry, agriculture, and education.


    • All who opposed him were killed or sent to work camps in Siberia

  • Brought great progress at a great cost

Soviet communism

Soviet Communism

  • In the USSR, Communism didn’t work out exactly as planned

  • In a classless society, who ends up as the boss? Someone has to make the decisions.

  • The government, not the people controlled everything

    • banks, mines, factories, railroads, and farms.



  • Farms were taken away from private owners and shared by large groups of farmers.

  • At least, that was the plan

  • In reality the gov’t controlled the price of crops, which farmers didn’t like

Resistance to collectivization

Resistance to Collectivization

  • Many peasants resisted collectivization.

  • They protested by killing their own animals and burning crops.

  • Stalin sent in troops to confiscate crops, many peasants were forcibly starved to death

Stalin the dictator

Stalin the Dictator

  • Stalin was an absolute ruler, leader of a totalitarian regime

    Under totalitarian leadership,


Man of the year 1939 1942

Man of the Year 1939 & 1942

The great purge

The Great Purge

  • Great Purge – Stalin eliminated all opponents, including old Communist Party leaders and military leaders

    Why would Stalin want to purge, or get rid of, these people?

Show trials

Show Trials

  • Stalin had “show trials”

    • Many old party leaders were forced to admit that they had betrayed the USSR

  • Millions of Russians were executed or sent to Siberia to work to death in labor camps called gulags.

Something to think about

Something to Think About

Stalin was an absolute leader. Why would Stalin have “show trials” when he could have just made his opponents disappear?

Leon trotsky

Leon Trotsky

  • Leon Trotsky

  • Lenin’s 2nd in Command.

  • Stalin was jealous that he was not chosen to rule after Lenin died.

  • Stalin betrays Trotsky, and exiles him to Mexico.

Leon trotsky1

Leon Trotsky

  • Sending the guy to Mexico wasn’t enough, so he sends an assassin to kill Trotsky…

  • …with an icepick

Leon trotsky2

Leon Trotsky

  • Trotsky ends up in the Hospital

  • Where he later dies

Leon trotsky3

Leon Trotsky

  • Stalin feels he needs to completely erase Trotsky from history.

Soviet propaganda

Soviet Propaganda

  • Lenin Lived, Lenin Lives, Lenin will Live!

Soviet propaganda1

Soviet Propaganda

Soviet propaganda2

Soviet Propaganda

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