Urinary system
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Urinary System. Ashley Morgade, Nick Perez, Kayla Lopez, TJ ”APPLE HEAD ” Martin MRS. HILL IS YOUR #1 FAN……  LOVE AND MISS YOU ALL 4 TH PERIOD ! . Urinary System. The urinary system which is also called the renal system is the system that stores, produces, and eliminates urine.

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Urinary System

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Urinary system

Urinary System

Ashley Morgade, Nick Perez, Kayla Lopez,

TJ ”APPLE HEAD” Martin

MRS. HILL IS YOUR #1 FAN…… 

LOVE AND MISS YOU ALL 4TH PERIOD!


Urinary system1

Urinary System

  • The urinary system which is also called the renal system is the system that stores, produces, and eliminates urine.

  • It includes the two kidneys, bladder, two ureters, and the urethra.


How it s formed

How it’s formed

  • Urine is formed in the kidney’s through blood filtration.

  • The urine is then passed through the ureters and to the bladder where it is stored.

  • During urination the urine is then passed from the bladder to the urethra then outside the body.


Functions

Functions

  • Removal of waste from the body.

  • Regulate electrolytes.

  • Regulation of acid- base homeostasis.

  • Controlling blood volume and blood pressure.


Urinary system males females

Urinary System (Males & Females)

The urethra is longer than the females.

Females can get infections easier because of the proximity to the vagina.

Males though share their reproductive organ with the urinary track.

Males can et infections due to it’s closeness to the prostate.

Males

Females


Kidneys

Kidneys

  • The kidney’s filter the impurities in the urine and sends back certain nutrients the body needs to function.

  • The rest of the waste from the kidney’s continue it’s path to the ureters and it is stored in the bladder.


Diagram worksheet

Diagram Worksheet


Diseases infections

Diseases/Infections

  • Any mishap in this system may disrupt the normal functioning of the body, resulting in several kinds of disorders, and discomfort. There is a wide range of urinary system diseases, which people suffer from:

  • - Cystitis

  • Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder, specifically, inflammation of the wall of the bladder.

  • Cystitis usually occurs when the urethra and bladder, become infected by bacteria and the area becomes irritated and inflamed.

  • Cystitis is a fairly common lower urinary tract infection, which affects people of both sexes and all ages. It is more common among females than males.


Diseases infections1

Diseases/Infections

What causes Cystitis?

  • - When women insert a tampon there is a slight risk of bacteria entering the urethra.

  • When a urinary catheter is changed there may be damage to the area.

  • There is a higher incidence of cystitis among women who use the diaphragm for contraception, compared to sexually active women who doesn’t

  • Frequent and/or vigorous sex increases the chances of physical damage or bruising, which in turn makes the likelihood of cystitis developing higher.

  • Sexually active women have a higher risk of bacteria entering via the urethra.

  • Part of the urinary system may be blocked.

  • During the menopause women produce less mucus in the vaginal area. This mucus stops the bacteria from multiplying.

  • During the menopause the lining of a woman's urethra gets thinner as her levels of estrogen drop. The thinner the lining becomes, the higher the chances are of infection and damage.

  • A woman's urethra opening is much nearer the anus than a man's. Consequently, there is a higher risk of bacteria entering the urethra from the anus.


Breakdown of cystitis

Breakdown of Cystitis


Symptoms of cystitis

Symptoms of Cystitis

  • Urine may have traces of blood

  • Urine is dark and/or cloudy

  • Urine has a strong smell

  • Pain just above the pubic bone

  • Pain in the lower back

  • Pain in the abdomen

  • Only small amount of urine is passed each time

  • Frequent need to urinate

  • Burning sensation when urinating

  • Older women may feel weak and feverish but have none of the other symptoms mentioned above

  • When children have cystitis they may have any of the symptoms listed above, plus vomiting and general weakness.


Urethritis

Urethritis

  • The inflammation of the Urethra.

  • It’s mainly cause by bacteria that enters the urethra from skin around the urethras' opening.

  • Causes:

  • E. coli and other bacteria present in stool.

  • Gonococcus. It is sexually transmitted and causes gonorrhea.

  • Chlamydia trachomatis. It is sexually transmitted and causes Chlamydia.

  • The herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) can also cause urethritis. Trichomonas is another cause of urethritis. It is a single-celled organism that is sexually transmitted.


Urethritis symptoms

Urethritis Symptoms

  • Feeling the frequent or urgent need to urinate

  • Difficulty starting urination

  • Urethritis can also cause itching, pain, or discomfort when a person is not urinating.

  • Pain during sex

  • Discharge from the urethral opening or vagina

  • In men, blood in the semen or urine


Bladder stones

Bladder Stones

  • Bladder stones are usually small masses of minerals that form in your bladder. Bladder stones develop when urine in your bladder becomes concentrated, causing minerals in your urine to crystallize. Concentrated, stagnant urine is often the result of not being able to completely empty your bladder. This may be due to an enlarged prostate, nerve damage or recurring urinary tract infections.

  • Some people with bladder stones have no problems — even when their stones are large. But if a stone irritates the bladder wall or blocks the flow of urine, signs and symptoms can develop.

    Symptoms

  • Lower abdominal pain

  • In men, pain or discomfort in the penis

  • Painful urination

  • Frequent urination, especially during the night

  • Difficulty urinating or interruption of urine flow

  • Blood in your urine

  • Cloudy or abnormally dark-colored urine


Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis

  • It’s the inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys. Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Also called glomerular disease, glomerulonephritis can be acute meaning a sudden attack of inflammation, or chronic; coming on gradually.


Signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis

Signs and Symptoms of Glomerulonephritis

  • Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria)

  • Foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria)

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)

  • Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen

  • Fatigue from anemia or kidney failure

  • An elevated body temperature (typically about 100.4F)

  • Breathing difficulties

  • Edema (swelling), especially in the hands, face, feet, ankles or abdomen

  • Loss of appetite

  • Nausea

  • Pallor

  • Vision problems

  • Vomiting


Urinary incontinence

Urinary Incontinence

  • It’s a loss of bladder control. Some people who suffer from this disorder, might get a strong urge to urinate but they cannot make it to the washroom in time. While, some may suffer from leaking the urine by merely coughing or sneezing. Causes could be several, common ones include medical conditions such as constipation or urinary tract infection. Temporary cases may be caused by drinking alcohol, drinking too much fluids, irritated bladder, and medications. Cases which are chronic could be a result of pregnancy, enlarged prostate, prostate cancer, bladder stones, and aging.


Symptoms there are five different types of urinary inconsistence

SymptomsThere are five different types of urinary inconsistence

1. Stress incontinence. This is loss of urine when you exert pressure — stress — on your bladder by coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising or lifting something heavy. Stress incontinence occurs when the sphincter muscle of the bladder is weakened. In women, physical changes resulting from pregnancy, childbirth and menopause can cause stress incontinence. In men, removal of the prostate gland can lead to stress incontinence.


Urinary system

2. Urge incontinence. This is a sudden, intense urge to urinate, followed by an involuntary loss of urine. Your bladder muscle contracts and may give you a warning of only a few seconds to a minute to reach a toilet. With urge incontinence, you may need to urinate often, including throughout the night. Urge incontinence may be caused by urinary tract infections, bladder irritants, bowel problems, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, injury or nervous system damage associated with multiple sclerosis. If there's no known cause, urge incontinence is also called overactive bladder.


Urinary system

3. Overflow incontinence. If you frequently or constantly dribble urine, you may have overflow incontinence, which is an inability to empty your bladder. Sometimes you may feel as if you never completely empty your bladder. When you try to urinate, you may produce only a weak stream of urine. This type of incontinence may occur in people with a damaged bladder, blocked urethra or nerve damage from diabetes, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury. In men, overflow incontinence can also be associated with prostate gland problems.


Urinary system

4. Mixed incontinence. If you experience symptoms of more than one type of urinary incontinence, such as stress incontinence and urge incontinence, you have mixed incontinence.

5. Functional incontinence. Many older adults, especially people in nursing homes, experience incontinence simply because a physical or mental impairment keeps them from making it to the toilet in time. For example, a person with severe arthritis may not be able to unbutton his or her pants quickly enough. This is called functional incontinence.


Enlarged prostate gland males

Enlarged Prostate Gland (Males)

  • Prostate gland enlargement is a common condition as men get older. Also called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic hypertrophy, prostate gland enlargement can cause bothersome urinary symptoms. Untreated prostate gland enlargement can block the flow of urine out of the bladder and can cause bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems


Urinary system

Quiz

  • What are the main functions of the Urinary System?

  • True or False? The males urethra is longer than the females.

  • Explain how Urethritis affects the Urinary system.

  • How many types of urinary inconsistencies are there?

  • Which inconsistency can make you urinate while coughing or laughing?


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