Forests of the world economic social and environmental values
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Forests of the World: Economic, Social and Environmental Values. Tim White School of Forest Resources and Conservation 138 NZ Hall, UF, IFAS 846-0850; [email protected] June, 2011. Objectives. Importance of Forests: Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits

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Forests of the world economic social and environmental values

Forests of the World:Economic, Social and Environmental Values

Tim White

School of Forest Resources and Conservation

138 NZ Hall, UF, IFAS

846-0850; [email protected]

June, 2011


Objectives

Objectives

  • Importance of Forests:

    • Economic benefits

    • Social benefits

    • Environmental benefits

  • Forests of the World

    • Global trends

    • State of the world’s forests

    • Types of forests

  • Forests of Florida

  • Discussion

  • References for Your Use


Importance and benefits from forests

Importance and Benefits from Forests

Non-Timber

Products

Domestic Uses

Wood

Products

Recreation

Economic

Values

Social

Values

Social & Ecological Services

Forests

Aesthetics & Spiritual

Ecological

Values

Climate Mitigation

H2O & Soil Amelioration

Habitats & Biodiversity


Objectives1

Objectives

  • Importance of Forests:

    • Economic benefits

    • Social benefits

    • Environmental benefits

  • Forests of the World

    • Global trends

    • State of the world’s forests

    • Types and distribution of forests

  • Forests of Florida

  • Discussion

  • References for Your Use


Forests of the world economic social and environmental values

Global Demand for Wood

  • Consumption is Growing

    • Up 1.6% annually (up 60% by 2030)

    • 50/50 for domestic/industrial wood

      • 80% of consumption is for industrial purposes in developed countries

      • 80% of consumption is for domestic use in developing countries

    • Both uses (domestic and industrial) will continue to be important

    • 10,000 products made from wood


Global demand and supply of wood

Global Demand and Supply of Wood

  • World’s population is growing

  • World’s demand for wood is growing

  • World’s area of forests to meet demand is shrinking

  • Forest-to-people ratio:

    • 1960 = 1.2 ha per capita (3 acres/person)

    • 2005 = 0.6 ha per capita (1.5 acres/person)

  • % of 1980 values


Non wood forest products 150 products traded globally

Non-Wood Forest Products:150 Products Traded Globally

Chemicals: Dyes, turpentine, latex …

Edibles: Food, drink, flavors, spices

Medicines and herbs

Crafts, fodder, decoratives, other …


Other global forest values demand is growing

Half of all terrestrial carbon is in forests

Half of world’s biodiversity lives in TRF

Two-thirds of all species live in forests

Other Global Forest Values:Demand is Growing!

  • Recreation: hunting, fishing, hiking

  • Ecotourism (7% of global tourism)

  • Ecosystem services

  • Conservation of biodiversity

    • (11% of world’s forests)


Local peoples 350 million live in forests

Local Peoples:350 Million Live in Forests

Home, livelihoods, medicines, construction, fodder, etc.


Objectives2

Objectives

  • Importance of Forests:

    • Economic benefits

    • Social benefits

    • Environmental benefits

  • Forests of the World

    • Global trends

    • State of the world’s forests

    • Types of forests

  • Forests of Florida

  • Discussion

  • References for Your Use


State of the world s forests

State of the World’s Forests

  • 4 billion ha of forests (10 billion acres)

  • 30% of global land area

  • Important on all continents


State of the world s forests1

State of the World’s Forests

  • Forests grow where climates and soils permit

  • Current distribution also reflects historical deforestation associated with colonization: Now 50% of original area

Low Species Richness

High Species Richness

33%

11%

9%

47%


State of the world s forests global deforestation and degradation

Settlement in tropical dry rainforest

State of the World’s Forests:Global Deforestation and Degradation

Deforestation

  • 30 to 50% loss of total forest area in last 8,000 yrs

  • Last 50 years

    • 1.2 ha/person in 1960

    • 0.6 ha/person in 2005

  • Current annual net deforestation

    • 8 million ha (20 million acres)

    • 2/3 of Florida

  • Roads lead to access

    Degradation

  • High grading of valuable timber

  • Unsustainable harvest levels

  • Poor practices leading to soil erosion, loss of wildlife habitat, etc.


State of the world s forests global deforestation and reforestation

State of the World’s Forests:Global Deforestation and Reforestation

Current deforestation mostly in developing countries

Deforestation in TRF could mean extinction of 100 species per day


State of the world s forests mitigating climate change

State of the World’s Forests:Mitigating Climate Change

World Resources Inc, PAGE, 2000


Objectives3

Objectives

  • Importance of Forests:

    • Economic benefits

    • Social benefits

    • Environmental benefits

  • Forests of the World

    • Global trends

    • State of the world’s forests

    • Types of forests

  • Forests of Florida

  • Discussion

  • References for Your Use


Types of forests in the world native or natural forests

Tropical Rain Forests

Native Working Forests

National Parks and Forests

Temperate Rain Forests

Types of Forests in the World:Native or Natural Forests

90% of the world’s forests

  • Undisturbed or second-growth

  • Managed or unmanaged

    11% of the world’s forests are in reserves: Parks, national forests, wilderness areas, conservation reserves


Types of forests in the world planted forests or plantations

Seedling of E. grandis

6 yr plantation harvest

3.5 yr plantation

Types of Forests in the World:Planted Forests or Plantations

  • Reforestation & afforestation

  • 4% of the world’s forest area

  • Supply 30% of industrial wood

  • Grow faster than native forests

  • Have less biodiversity

  • Half the plantations are for fuelwood


E grandis breeding reforestation silviculture

E. grandis:Breeding, Reforestation & Silviculture

  • Natural Range (Red): Coastal NSW & Queensland

  • Exotic Range (Yellow): 10MM ha in > 30 countries

  • Most widley planted tree species


Clonal forestry first cycle program

Clonal Forestry: First-Cycle Program


Clonal forestry mass selection

Clonal Forestry: Mass Selection


Clonal testing pure species hybrids

Clonal Testing: Pure Species & Hybrids


Operational propagation of tested clones

Operational Propagation of Tested Clones


Crop and product uniformity

Crop and Product Uniformity


Types of forests in the world other types of forests

Agroforests

Forested Wetlands

Types of Forests in the World:Other Types of Forests

Urban Forests


Types of forests in the world forested area by different types

Types of Forests in the World:Forested Area by Different Types


Types of forests the world needs all types

11%

Conservation Reserves

Primary Forests

Ecological Value

Managed Old

Growth Forests

Intensively Managed

Regrowth Forests

5%

Plantations

Economic Value

Types of Forests:The World Needs All Types


Objectives4

Objectives

  • Importance of Forests:

    • Economic benefits

    • Social benefits

    • Environmental benefits

  • Forests of the World

    • Global trends

    • State of the world’s forests

    • Types of forests

  • Forests of Florida

  • Discussion

  • References for Your Use


Forests in florida

Forests in Florida

By far, the most important land use:

  • Half of FL land area is forested

  • Mostly in N FL

  • Pastures are distant second (17%)

    $16 billion/yr industry (#1 “crop”)

    $8.0 billion/yr for hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing

    $1.8 billion/yr in recreation and ecotourism at FL parks

    Pine straw, palmetto, silvopastures

    Critical ecological services


Forests in florida increasing demands for all goods services

Increasing Demands for:

  • Large quantities of high quality water

  • Jobs and products

  • Biomass for energy and fuels

  • Recreation and other social services

  • All ecosystem goods and services

Forests in Florida:Increasing Demands For All Goods & Services

Population: 16 million people

  • Fastest-growing state east of MS River

  • 28 new people per hour (400,000/yr)

  • 92% live in urban areas, mostly in S FL


Forests in florida urbanization

Forests in Florida:Urbanization!

Decreasing Forest Land Area

  • Losing 40,000 acres per year (mostly to urbanization)

    • 1960: 4 acres of forests per person

    • 2000: 1 acre of forests per person


Forests in florida urbanization1

Forests in Florida:Urbanization!

Increasing Fragmentation of Rural Forests

  • Increasing WUI (1 out of 5 acres in FL in WUI)

  • Impacting wildlife and bird populations

  • Increasing role of fire

  • Impacts of rural development

    Increasing Role of Urban Forests

  • Microclimate amelioration

  • Stormwater runoff

  • Recreation

  • Aesthetics

  • Psychological benefits


Forests in florida production and protection

Forests in Florida:Production and Protection

Production Forestry

  • Meet demands from fewer acres (timber, fiber, NTP, energy)

  • Increase production efficiency of plantations

  • All in sustainable manner (BMPs, certification, etc)

    Conservation Programs

  • State buying 2 million acres (1/8 of all forest land) + easements

  • FL already owns more forest land than any other state in south

  • Manifests desire of citizens to support conservation


Conclusions forests are important in this world

Conclusions:Forests are Important in this World!

All types of forests

Native forests, plantations, agroforests, urban forests

All forest products

Timber, paper, medicinals, recreation, hunting, homes

All forest practices

Preservation, conservation, production, multiple use

All forest uses

Reserves, family forests, industrial timberlands, city parks, etc.

All forest values

Social values (recreation, water & soil quality, homes for people)

Economic values (products, jobs, direct and indirect impact)

Environmental values (C sequestration, habitats, biodiversity)


Importance and benefits from forests need to understand human dimensions to realize these benefits

Importance and Benefits from Forests:Need to Understand Human Dimensions to Realize these Benefits

Non-Timber

Products

Domestic Uses

Wood

Products

Recreation

Economic

Values

Social

Values

Social & Ecological Services

Forests

Aesthetics & Spiritual

Ecological

Values

Climate Mitigation

H2O & Soil Amelioration

Habitats & Biodiversity


Discussion

Discussion


References and websites

References and Websites

Boyle, J.R. 1999. Planted forests: views and viewpoints. New Forests 17: 5-9.

Diesen, Magnus (ed).1998. Economics of the Pulp and Paper Industry. Fapet Oy Publishing, Helsinki, Finland. 186 pp.

Earth Trends, World Resources Institute 2007. http://earthtrends.wri.org/

Evans, J. 1992. Plantation forestry in the tropics. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 403p.

FAO Forest Assessment 1990. Global synthesis . FAO Paper 124. Rome. 1995.

FAO Forest Assessment 1990. Tropical plantations. FAO Paper 128. Rome. 1995.

FAO State of the World’s Forests 2007. http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/sofo/en/

FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/003/X9835e/.

FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/008/a0400e/a0400e00.htm

Florida’s Forest Resources Plan. I. An Assessment. 2005. http://www.fl-dof.com/plans_support/future_forest_resources.html

Florida’s Forest Resources Plan. II. Condition and Trends. 2005. http://www.fl-dof.com/plans_support/future_forest_resources.html

Forestry Encyclopedia Network. http://www.forestryencyclopedia.net/

Forestry Figures and Facts. American Forest and Paper Association. http://www.afandpa.org/

Fox, T.R. 2000. Sustained productivity in intensively managed plantations. For. Ecol Manage. 138: 202-213.

Hagler, R.W. 1996. The global wood fiber equation-- a new world order? Forest Products J. 79:51-54.

Hodges, Alan, et al., 2003. Economic impact of the forest industry in Florida. Final Report to the Florida Forestry Association.

McLaren, J. (ed) 1999. Issues in Global Timber Supplies. Miller Freeman, San Francisco. 231pp.

Sedjo, R.A. 1999. The potential of high-yield plantation forestry for meeting timber needs. New Forests 17: 339-359.

Sedjo, R.A. 2001.The role of forest plantations in the world’s future timber supply. Forest Chronicle 77:221-225.

Sedjo, R.A and D. Botkin. 1997. Using forest plantations to spare natural forests. Environment 39: 14-20.

Spears, J. 1998. Forests at the crossroads: Environmental challenges for Canada in the 21st century. Forestry Chronicle 74: 812-821.

Sutton, W.R.J. 1999. Does the world need planted forests? New Zealand J Forestry 44: 24-29.

World Conservation Union (IUCN). http://www.iucn.org/

World Resources 1994-1995. Oxford Press. 400p


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