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CHAPTER 4. FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE. WHAT IS CULTURE?. Describe, in as much detail as possible, a typical Friday (from the time you get out of bed until you go to bed). CULTURE….

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Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4

FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE


What is culture
WHAT IS CULTURE?

  • Describe, in as much detail as possible, a typical Friday (from the time you get out of bed until you go to bed)


Culture
CULTURE….

…The body of customary beliefs, social forms and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct traditions (uggghhh)

  • basically it is the way of life of a group of people (their collection of customs)


Culture combines
CULTURE COMBINES….

VALUES

  • MATERIAL***

  • ARTIFACTS

  • visible objects a group possesses and leaves behind for the future

  • - survival and leisure activities????

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS


Types of material culture
TYPES OF MATERIAL CULTURE

FOLK

POPULAR

Found in small, homogenous, isolated groups

tends to be more isolated and rural

More likely to vary from place to place at a given time

  • Found in large, heterogeneous societies

  • Practiced by more people over a larger portion of the Earth’s surface

  • More likely to vary from time to time at a given place


ISSUE #1

Where do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse?


Origins of folk popular cultures
Origins of Folk & Popular Cultures

  • Hearths of folk culture may be anonymous and multiple

    • ex. Folk music and agricultural connections in Vietnam

  • Hearths of popular culturetend to be located in MDCs

    • ex. Popular music and production for sale to mass audience (hip hop music, fast food/McDonalds)


Type 1
Type 1

  • How would a folk song about agriculture in Southeast Asia spread/diffuse?

  • How would Justin Bieber’s music spread/diffuse?


Diffusion of folk popular cultures
Diffusion of Folk & Popular Cultures

Folk

Popular

Diffuses faster and to more places

Pattern of hierarchical diffusion from node on down

Spreads through modern communications and transportation

EX – Organized Sports/Soccer

  • Diffuses more slowly and on a smaller scale

  • Primarily through migration/relocation diffusion

  • Also through word of mouth (orally)

    Ex - Amish




Amish settlements in the u s
Amish Settlements in the U.S.

Fig. 4-3: Amish settlements are distributed through the northeast U.S.


LIST…

  • 2 examples of folk culture

  • 2 examples of popular culture


Tin pan alley popular music
Tin Pan Alley & Popular Music

Fig. 4-1: Writers and publishers of popular music were clustered in Tin Pan Alley in New York in the early 20th c. The area later moved north from 28th St to Times Square.


A mental map of hip hop
A Mental Map of Hip Hop

Fig. 4-2: This mental map places major hip hop performers near other similar performers and in the portion of the country where they performed.


World cup fans
World Cup Fans

French, German, and Italian fans at 2006 World Cup (eventually won by Italy, which broke Mr. Oswald’s heart!).

We destroy the sport with our boring style of play!!!


ISSUE #2

Why is Folk Culture Clustered?


Isolation promotes cultural diversity
ISOLATION PROMOTES CULTURAL DIVERSITY

  • Unique folk customs are a result of a group’s long-term isolation from other groups (even those close to them)

    • This is why folk customs are clustered vary from place to place at the same time

  • Read the Himalayan art section on your own


Himalayan folk cultural regions
Himalayan Folk Cultural Regions

Fig. 4-4: Cultural geographers have identified four distinct culture regions based on predominant religions in the Himalaya Mountains.

- Shows how folk custom are influenced by both cultural institutions (religion) and by environmental processes (climate, landforms, vegetation…)


Type 11
TYPE 1

  • List as many ways you can think of that the physical environment/climate affect culture. You can give specific examples if that helps.


Influence of the physical environment
INFLUENCE OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

  • Environment is one, not the only, factor that influences culture !!!!!!!

    (cultural values also play a part)

  • Due to lack of technology, folk societies are even more influenced by the environment

  • Environment and cultural values have a strong impact on food and shelter in folk cultures

Environ-ment


Distinctive food preferences
DISTINCTIVE FOOD PREFERENCES

  • Folk food habits derive from the environment (why? – people eat mostly plants and animals)

  • People adapt their diets based on their environment

    ex. abundant wood supply leads to slow stewing in NE)

    - know terroir – pp.121-122


Traditional vegetable garden istanbul
TraditionalVegetable Garden, Istanbul

Fig. 4-5: The bostan, or traditional vegetable garden, provides fresh vegetables in a large city such as Istanbul


Food habits are also affected by cultural traditions
Food habits are also affected by cultural traditions….

  • Different groups with different traditions will have unique diets that are not solely a result of the environment (soups in Transylvania, seating patterns at tables…)

  • Food attractions and taboos will also play a major role in diet

a kitchen is often a BIG clue to the family’s ethnicity


Food attractions and taboos
FOOD ATTRACTIONS and TABOOS

ATTRACTIONS

TABOOS

Some foods are avoided due to negative forces, characteristics, or associations

- Muslims don’t eat pork

- Hindus don’t eat cows

- MbumKpau women in Chad avoid goats and chicken before getting pregnant

  • Some foods are eaten based on appearance or qualities (real or perceived)

    • Exs. Abipone Indians eat jaguars and bulls

    • Mandrake root in Mediterranean associated with sexual prowess



Hog production food cultures
Hog Production & Food Cultures

Fig. 4-6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.


Folk housing
FOLK HOUSING

  • Folk housing will display the following:

    - distinctive building materials

    - distinctive form and orientation

    - influence of the environment


Home locations in southeast asia
Home Locations in Southeast Asia

Fig. 4-7: Houses and sleeping positions are oriented according to local customs among the Lao in northern Laos (left) and the Yuan and Shan in northern Thailand (right).


House types in western china
House Types in Western China

Fig. 4-8: Four communities in western China all have distinctive house types.


Kashgar house western china
Kashgar House, western China

Kashgar houses have second floor open-air patios


Turpan house western china
Turpan House, western China

Turpan is located in a deep valley with little open land. Second stories are avoided because of strong winds


Dunhuang house western china
Dunhuang House, western China

Dunhuang houses have walled central courtyards, covered with an open air grape arbor.


Yinchuan house china
Yinchuan House, China

Liz Lewis:

…from outsiders

Yinchuan houses are built around large open courtyards which provide seclusion from ousi


U s folk house forms
U.S. FOLK HOUSE FORMS

  • Older houses display local folk-culture traditions (why?)

  • Much more difficult to detect distinctions in modern homes (why?)

  • Kniffen’s nodes of U.S. folk homes:

  • New England

    2. Middle Atlantic

    3. Lower Chesapeake


U s folk house forms cont
U.S. FOLK HOUSE FORMS cont.

  • Know the different types for each:

  • 4 types of NE home

  • “I” house in MA

  • 1-story w/ chimney in LC


Diffusion of house types in u s
Diffusion of House Types in U.S.

Fig. 4-9: Distinct house types originated in three main source areas in the U.S. and then diffused into the interior as migrants moved west.


Diffusion of new england house types
Diffusion of New England House Types

Fig. 4-10: Four main New England house types of the 18th & 19th centuries diffused westward as settlers migrated.


ISSUE #3

Why is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?


Pop culture is widely distributed because
POP CULTURE IS WIDELY DISTRIBUTED BECAUSE…

  • It diffuses very quickly across Earth, unlike folk culture

    - this diffusion relies on people having high economic development to acquire the material aspects of pop culture (what does this mean?)

    - Remember: pop culture varies from time to time at the same place

‘50s

today


Diffusion of popular housing clothing food
DIFFUSION OF POPULAR HOUSING, CLOTHING & FOOD

  • Differences in these categories vary much less now in MDCs than they used to (why?)

  • List 5-7 characteristics of a suburb (what do people wear, eat, types of buildings, types of activities, forms of transportation……)


Popular housing styles
POPULAR HOUSING STYLES

  • Newer homes reflect how customs vary more in time than place

  • Years right after WWII = modern style

  • Since 1960s = neo-eclectic

  • See “popular housing” graphic organizer and page 128


U s house types 1945 1990
U.S. House Types, 1945-1990

Fig. 4-11: Several variations of the “modern style” were dominant from the 1940s into the 1970s. Since then, “neo-eclectic” styles have become the dominant type of house construction in the U.S.



Construction worker
CONSTRUCTION WORKER clothing for a …..


Lawyer
LAWYER clothing for a …..


Movie star
MOVIE STAR clothing for a …..


Waiter waitress
WAITER/WAITRESS clothing for a …..


Clothing styles
CLOTHING STYLES clothing for a …..

  • Clothing habits reflect:

    • Income

    • Social forms (job characteristics)

  • MDCs of NA/WE

    • Clothing usually reflects occupation rather than environment

    • Higher incomes greatly influence clothing and changing styles (especially for women – why?)

  • Rapid communication/technology spreads fashion

  • Ironically, has led to more awareness of folk clothing (can be used to preserve memories/promote tourism – p.128)



Is it the shoes
Is it the shoes? clothing for a …..


Popular food customs
POPULAR FOOD CUSTOMS clothing for a …..

  • High consumption of alcohol and snack foods are indicative of popular food customs

  • Consumption does vary regionally within MDCs :

    • local production(ex. Whiskey consumption in the U.S.)

    • Cultural background (Mexican food in Texas)

  • Generally speaking, consumption of alcohol and snack foods depends on :

    • High income

    • National advertising

  • The environment can also play a role in the distribution of pop. Culture food customs (read section on wine – pp.129-130)


Alcohol preferences in the u s
Alcohol Preferences in the U.S. clothing for a …..

Fig. 4-12: Per capita consumption of Canadian whiskey (left) and tequila (right) show different source areas and histories of diffusion.


Wine production per year
Wine Production per year clothing for a …..

Fig. 4-13: The distribution of wine production shows the joint impact of the physical environment and social customs.


Diffusion of pop culture through
DIFFUSION OF POP CULTURE THROUGH… clothing for a …..

internet

television


Using pp 131 and 134
USING PP. 131 and 134… clothing for a …..

  • Explain the trend of TV usage around the world from 1954-2003

  • Explain “ “ internet usage “ “ from 1995-2004

  • List 2 similarities between the evolution of TV and Internet usage around the globe

  • “ “ differences “ “

    5. True/False: The diffusion of Internet service/usage is following a similar pattern to that of TV diffusion


Tv distribution 1954
TV Distribution, 1954 clothing for a …..


Tv distribution 1970
TV Distribution, 1970 clothing for a …..


Tv distribution 2003
TV Distribution, 2003 clothing for a …..


Diffusion of tv 1954 2003
Diffusion of TV clothing for a …..1954 - 2003

Fig. 4-14: Television has diffused widely since the 1950s, but some areas still have low numbers of TVs per population.


Internet users 1995 per 1000 population
Internet Users, 1995 clothing for a …..per 1000 population


Internet users 2000 per 1000 population
Internet Users, 2000 clothing for a …..per 1000 population


Internet users 2004 per 1000 population
Internet Users, 2004 clothing for a …..per 1000 population


Distribution of internet users 1995 2003
Distribution of Internet Users, 1995 - 2003 clothing for a …..

Fig. 4-15: Internet users per 1000 population. Diffusion of internet service is following the pattern of TV diffusion in the 20th century, but at a much faster rate.


ISSUE #4 clothing for a …..

Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems?


Type 12
TYPE 1 clothing for a …..

  • List as many reasons you can think of as to why the spread of popular culture causes problems


Major problems it causes
MAJOR PROBLEMS IT CAUSES… clothing for a …..

THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE

NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

POP CULTURE

FOLK CULTURE


Threat to folk culture
THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE clothing for a …..

  • When people turn away from folk culture in favor of pop. culture they may also turn away from their traditional values (= great tension)

  • May lead to dominance of Western culture (can lead to anger towards the West)

  • Wearing of Western style clothes as opposed to traditional local clothing can cause great rifts in a society (Muslim clothing v. “skimpy” clothing like bikinis)

    • -article about bikini in Dubai

Right to wear or disrespectful???????


Threat to folk culture cont
THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE cont… clothing for a …..

  • Diffusion of pop. Culture can have positive benefits for women in LDCs

    • ex. Women under the Taliban in Afghanistan

  • Can also have negative impact on them

    - International prostitution


Threat to folk culture cont1
THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE cont… clothing for a …..

  • Leaders of LDCs often fear the role of foreign media in their countries

  • Some see it as a threat to their independence

  • U.S., UK, and Japan dominate TV in LDCs (new form of imperialism???)

  • Programming may be adjusted to deal with these concerns

    • No Porky Pig in Muslim countries


Examples of media and spread of pc in china
Examples of media and spread of PC in China clothing for a …..

  • Nobel Prize

  • Twitter

  • High School Students

  • China’s biggest search engine


Threat to folk culture cont2
THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE cont… clothing for a …..

  • Diffusion of information on a global scale is dominated by U.S. and UK

  • News media in most LDCs is dominated by the gov’t (not the case in MDCs)

  • Many African and Asian nations criticize Western concept of freedom of the press as promoting Western values and have unbalanced reports

interception

Nobel prize

twitter


Environmental impact
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT clothing for a …..

  • Pop. Culture spreads with less consideration for environment than folk culture

  • Spatial organization of PC reflects distribution of social/economic features

  • Due to globalization, pop. Culture is increasingly uniform and creates more uniform landscapes


Modifying nature
MODIFYING NATURE clothing for a …..

  • Folk Culture springs from the environment, PC modifies it

    • Ex. Golf courses are aspects of PC that modify the environment


Golf courses in metropolitan areas
Golf Courses in Metropolitan Areas clothing for a …..

Fig. 4-16: The 50 best-served and worst-served metropolitan areas in terms of golf holes per capita, and areas that are above and below average.


Uniform landscapes
UNIFORM LANDSCAPES clothing for a …..

  • Spread of PC leads to uniform landscapes

  • Spatial expression of PC in one area will be very similar to another

    • Fast food restaurants

  • This spread of common landscapes has diffused from NA to rest of the world


Mcdonald s in beijing china
McDonald’s in Beijing, China clothing for a …..


Negative environmental impact
NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT clothing for a …..

DEPLETION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

POLLUTION

PC generates incredible amounts of waste that strain the environment:

Liquid

Gas

Solids (cans, bottles…)

  • Demand for resources such as:

    • Petroleum

    • Animal skins

    • Animal meat


Chapter 04 review

Chapter clothing for a …..04: Review


04.01 An act repeatedly performed by an individual is a(n) clothing for a …..

1. Cultural characteristic

2. Habit

3. Custom

4. Trait

5. Annoyance


04.01 An act repeatedly performed by an individual is a(n) clothing for a …..

1. Cultural characteristic

2. Habit

3. Custom

4. Trait

5. Annoyance


04.02 Popular culture is practiced clothing for a …..

1. Only where folk culture is absent

2. By large heterogeneous groups

3. By individuals only

4. Only in the more developed countries

5. At specific places


04.02 Popular culture is practiced clothing for a …..

1. Only where folk culture is absent

2. By large heterogeneous groups

3. By individuals only

4. Only in the more developed countries

5. At specific places


04.03 Folk culture is most likely to spread by clothing for a …..

1. Hierarchical diffusion

2. Contagious diffusion

3. Stimulus diffusion

4. Copycat diffusion

5. Relocation diffusion


04.03 Folk culture is most likely to spread by clothing for a …..

1. Hierarchical diffusion

2. Contagious diffusion

3. Stimulus diffusion

4. Copycat diffusion

5. Relocation diffusion


04.04 Modern communications methods have _________ of social customs.

1. Slowed the dissemination

2. Had little effect on the spread

3. Increased the global uniformity

4. Led to the fragmentation

5. None of these


04.04 Modern communications methods have _________ of social customs.

1. Slowed the dissemination

2. Had little effect on the spread

3. Increased the global uniformity

4. Led to the fragmentation

5. None of these


04.05 Folk songs customs.

1. Focus on daily activities

2. Cannot become part of popular culture

3. Are inseparable from the acoustic guitar

4. Have so far been of little cultural significance in the United States

5. Are often difficult to interpret


04.05 Folk songs customs.

1. Focus on daily activities

2. Cannot become part of popular culture

3. Are inseparable from the acoustic guitar

4. Have so far been of little cultural significance in the United States

5. Are often difficult to interpret


04.06 Hog production is lowest in customs.

1. North Africa

2. Europe

3. South America

4. East Asia

5. North America


04.06 Hog production is lowest in customs.

1. North Africa

2. Europe

3. South America

4. East Asia

5. North America


04.07 Wine production typically requires all of the following, except

1. Well-drained soils

2. Supportive customs

3. Proximity to water

4. Cool summers

5. Cool winters


04.07 Wine production typically requires all of the following, except

1. Well-drained soils

2. Supportive customs

3. Proximity to water

4. Cool summers

5. Cool winters


04.08 In America, tequila is consumed primarily in the following,

1. Northwest

2. Midwest

3. Southwest

4. Southeast

5. Northeast


04.08 In America, tequila is consumed primarily in the following,

1. Northwest

2. Midwest

3. Southwest

4. Southeast

5. Northeast


04.09 Internet use is least prevalent in following,

1. North America

2. Europe

3. Japan

4. Central Africa

5. Russia


04.09 Internet use is least prevalent in following,

1. North America

2. Europe

3. Japan

4. Central Africa

5. Russia


04.10 Similar restaurants, gas stations, and stores throughout the United States

1. Illustrate how popular culture can create a uniform landscape

2. Show how folk culture can diffuse

3. Are a prime example of globalization

4. Increase cultural awareness

5. None of these


04.10 Similar restaurants, gas stations, and stores throughout the United States

1. Illustrate how popular culture can create a uniform landscape

2. Show how folk culture can diffuse

3. Are a prime example of globalization

4. Increase cultural awareness

5. None of these


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