Correct commas
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 18

Correct Commas PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 55 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Correct Commas. 13 Rules to Live By. Information provided exclusively by: http://www.esf.edu/writingprogram/tipsheets/comma.htm. Why?. The comma exists to help readers. When properly placed, commas clarify meaning by helping readers organize information.

Download Presentation

Correct Commas

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Correct commas

Correct Commas

13 Rules to Live By

Information provided exclusively by: http://www.esf.edu/writingprogram/tipsheets/comma.htm


Correct commas

Why?

  • The comma exists to help readers.

  • When properly placed, commas clarify meaning by helping readers organize information.

  • Without it, sentence parts can collide into one another and cause confusion.


Correct commas

Do’s


Rule 1

Rule #1

  • Commas separate items in a series (a list of 3+ things).

  • Example:The forecast calls for light showers, some clearing, and morning fog.


Rule 2

Rule #2

  • Commas separate two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction (and, or, nor, but, so).

  • Example:Seven men were arrested on the east side, and ten more suspects were taken into custody six hours later.


Rule 3

Rule #3

  • Commas set off long introductory clauses and phrases and shorter clauses and phrases that would be confusing without the comma.

  • Example:When the fire alarm went off for the third time that night, the motel clerk finally called the fire department.


Rule 4

Rule #4

  • Commas set off non-restrictive (non-essential) clauses, phrases, and modifiers from the rest of the sentence.

  • Example of restrictive (essential) clause:Two sisters who sought refuge in a church died when the tornado hit.

  • Example of non-restrictive (non-essential) clause:Sandra Bullock,who is one of the more in demand actresses of Hollywood, won an Oscar for her performance in The Blind Side.


Rule 5

Rule #5

  • Commas separate descriptive modifiers of equal rank. If you can use adjectives interchangeably and can successfully insert the conjunction "and" between them, they are coordinate and require a comma.

  • Example:Scientists will not predict the next activity of the fickle, explosive volcano.


Rule 6

Rule #6

  • Commas set off parenthetical expressions.

  • Example:These same council members, you may recall, voted themselves a 35 percent pay increase last year.


Rule 7

Rule #7

  • Commas are used when the absence of a pause can cause confusion.

  • Example:For the mayor, going fishing is enough of a vacation.


Rule 8

Rule #8

  • Commas are used to set off participle phrases that modify some part of theindependent clause.

  • Example:The Senate adjourned today, having successfully defeated a filibustering attempt.


Don ts

Don’ts


Rule 9

Rule #9

  • Do not use a comma to separate two independent clauses that are not joinedby a coordinating conjunction. To do so would cause a comma splice.

  • Example:The inflation rate dipped to 3 percent, the unemployment rate stayed constant.


Alternatives

Alternatives

  • Use a semicolon to link the clauses:

    • The inflation rate dipped to 3 percent; the unemployment rate stayedconstant.

  • Use a coordinating conjunction with a comma:

    • The inflation rate dipped to 3 percent, but the unemployment ratestayed constant.


Rule 10

Rule #10

  • Do not use a comma to introduce a subordinate clause.

    • (Tip: the use of a comma before the conjunction "because" is one of the biggest offenders.)

  • Example:The mayor decided to visit the protest site because she needed a firsthand report.

  • But... if the subordinate clause is being used to introduce the sentence, a comma is required:

  • Example:Because she needed a firsthand report, the mayor decided to visit the protest site.


Rule 11

Rule #11

  • Do not use a comma to separate a noun or pronoun from its reflexive.

  • Example:Bryant himself will discipline the players.


Rule 12

Rule #12

  • Do not use a comma between a word and a phrase that amplifies it if it will create a "false series.“

  • Example of a Confusing Series:Rescuers discovered seven bodies, six transients, and one firefighter.BETTER:Rescuers discovered seven bodies-- six transients and one firefighter.


Rule 13

Rule #13

  • Don't use a comma to precede a partial quotation.

  • Example:The mayoral candidate charged that the incumbent was "a charlatan of the lowest order.“

  • But... If the quotation is a full sentence, it should be preceded by a comma:

  • Example:The defense counsel asked, "How would you like to be sent to prison for a crime you didn't commit?"


  • Login