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第 五 章. 脂 类 代 谢. Metabolism of Lipid. 脂 类 概 述. 定义. 脂肪和类脂的总称. 分类. 脂肪 (fat) : 三脂酰甘油 (triacylglycerols,TAG) 或 甘油三酯 (triglyceride, TG). 类脂 (lipoid) : 胆固醇 (cholesterol, CH)

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第 五 章

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3526961

Metabolism of Lipid


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(fat) (triacylglycerols,TAG)

(triglyceride, TG)

(lipoid) (cholesterol, CH)

(cholesterol ester, CE) (phospholipid, PL) (sphingolipids)


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FA

FA

FA

FA

FA

Pi

X

FA

FA

(phosphoglycerides)

X =


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Metabolism of Triglyceride


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-

TAC

CoA

FFA

3-

CoA

NADPH

ATP

CO2

3-


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CoA

CoA

CoA

CoA

CoA

CoA

R1COCoA

R2COCoA

R3COCoA

Pi


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ATP

ADP

* G 3-

*


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FFA


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+

+

+

FFA

FFA

FFA

ATP

-

G

AC

HSLa()

cAMP

PKA

HSLb()

DG

TG

  • HSL-----


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-

()


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+ CoA-SH

CoA

ATP AMP PPi

  • CoA


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2.CoA


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FAD

FADH2

CoA

2-CoA

H2O

2--CoA

NAD+

L(+)-

CoA

NADH+H+

CoA

CoA-SH

()

3.

CoA

L(+)-CoA

CoA

CoA+CoA


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2ATP

CoA

FAD

FADH2

AMP

PPi

H2O

CoA

ATP

CoASH

H2O

2

--CoA

3ATP

L(+)-

CoA

H2O

NAD+

NADH+H+

CoA-SH

CoA

TAC


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4.

16

2

  • 1CoA

    • 1CoA

    • 1NADH+H+

    • 1FADH2


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  • 7 8CoA

    • 7NADH+H+

    • 7FADH2

ATP

812 + 73

+ 72 = 131

ATP

131 2 = 129


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3-2CoA

3-CoA

2-CoA

2-CoA

H2O

D(-)-CoA

D(-)-CoA

L(+)-CoA

1.


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ATP

CO2

5-

2.

Ile Met Thr Val

CH3CH2CO~CoA

L-CoA

D-CoA

CoA

TAC


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(acetoacetate) -(-hydroxybutyrate)(acetone)

0.03~0.5mmol/L(0.3~5mg/dl)


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1.


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2.


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2CoA

CoA

CoA

HMGCoA

CoA

D(-)--

CoA

2CoA


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3.

*

*


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FFA

4.


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FFATG

CoA

CoA

+

CoA


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1.

    • 16


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G

CoA

2.

CoAATPHCO3NADPHMn2+

CoA

NADPH


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CO2

CO2

NADP+

H2O

CoA

NADPH+H+

AMP PPi

ATP

ATP

CoA

CoA

CoA


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ATP + HCO3- + CoA

CoA + ADP + Pi

3.

1CoA

CoA (acetyl CoA carboxylase)


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2

CoACoA2


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*

    • 7CoA


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    • 7


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(ACP)4-


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CH3(CH2)14COOH

+

7 CO2+ 6H2O

+

8HSCoA+ 14NADP+

CH3COSCoA

+

7 HOOCH2COSCoA

+

14NADPH+H+


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  • 1.

    • CoA NADPH+H+ 2418

  • 2.

    • CoA NADPH+H+ 2426


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H++NADH

E-FAD

Fe2+

Fe2+

CoA+2H2O

NAD+

E-FADH2

Fe3+

Fe3+

CoA+O2

NADH-cytb5

Cytb5

4589

91215


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1.

CoA

CoA

CoA


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2.

PKA

CoA

CoA

P


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( Prostaglandin, PG)

( thromboxane, TX)

( leukotrienes, LT)


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20:4581114

  • PG


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  • TX


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(LTB4)

  • LT


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PGTXLT

1.

PG

TX


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2.

LTA4

lipoxygenase

(5-HPETE, 5-hydroperoxy-eicotetraenoic acid)

LTB4LTC4

LTD4LTE4


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PGTXLT

1. PG

  • PGE2

  • PGE2PGA2

  • PGE2PGI2

  • PGF2


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2. TX

  • PGF2TXA2 PGI2 PGI3

  • TXA3TXA2


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3. LT

  • LTC4LTD4LTE4

  • LTD4

  • LTB4


Metabolism of phospholipid

Metabolism of Phospholipid


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FA

FA

Pi

X

FA

Pi

X

X


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X =


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(cephalin)

(lecithin)

(phosphatidyl inositol)

(phosphatidyl serine)


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(cardiolipin)


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1.

  • 2.

3.

ATPCTP


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4.


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CDP-


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X

R1R2


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PLA1

PLB2

PLD

PLB1

PLA2

PLC

(phospholipase , PLA)


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  • (sphingolipids)

    • (sphingosine)


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X----

X


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  • 1.

    • CoANADPH+H+FADH2

2.


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3.

N-

(PLC)


Metabolism of cholesterol

Metabolism of Cholesterol


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* (cholesterol)


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(27)

(28)

(29)


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*


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*

140


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1

18CoA + 36ATP + 16(NADPH+H+)

-


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1.


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2.

3.


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HMG-CoA


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(bile acid)

7 -


Metabolism of lipoprotein

Metabolism of Lipoprotein


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400~700mg/dl(5 mmol/L)

10~150mg/dl (0.11 ~ 1.69mmol/L)

150~250mg/dl (48.44 ~ 80.73 mmol/L)

100~250mg/dl (2.59 ~ 6.47 mmol/L)

5~20mg/dl (0.195 ~ 0.805 mmol/L)

*


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CM

(lipoprotein)

CMVLDLLDLHDL


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(apolipoprotein, apo)

18

apo A apo B apo C apo D apo E

( ) (100 48 )( )


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TG

apo B48A

A A

+


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LPL

;

CMTG

  • TG


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TG

+ apo B100E

LPLHL

LPL

VLDL

LDL

VLDL

FFA

FFA


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VLDL

TG


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VLDL

  • LDL

  • LDL


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LDL


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2261

ABCA1ATPAI (ATP-binding cassetle transporter A1)(cholesterol-efflux regulatory protein, CERP)

ATP


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1.

TG > 2.26mmol/l 200mg/dl

14~16h > 6.21mmol/l 240mg/dl

> 4.14mmol/l 160mg/dl


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()

()


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2.

LPLLCATapoCBEACLDL

3.


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