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第 五 章. 脂 类 代 谢. Metabolism of Lipid. 脂 类 概 述. 定义. 脂肪和类脂的总称. 分类. 脂肪 (fat) : 三脂酰甘油 (triacylglycerols,TAG) 或 甘油三酯 (triglyceride, TG). 类脂 (lipoid) : 胆固醇 (cholesterol, CH)

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第 五 章

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Metabolism of Lipid


(fat) (triacylglycerols,TAG)

(triglyceride, TG)

(lipoid) (cholesterol, CH)

(cholesterol ester, CE) (phospholipid, PL) (sphingolipids)



FA

FA

FA

FA

FA

Pi

X

FA

FA

(phosphoglycerides)

X =





Metabolism of Triglyceride


-

TAC

CoA

FFA

3-

CoA

NADPH

ATP

CO2

3-



CoA

CoA

CoA

CoA

CoA

CoA

R1COCoA

R2COCoA

R3COCoA

Pi


ATP

ADP

* G 3-

*


FFA


+

+

+

FFA

FFA

FFA

ATP

-

G

AC

HSLa()

cAMP

PKA

HSLb()

DG

TG

  • HSL-----


-

()


+ CoA-SH

CoA

ATP AMP PPi

  • CoA


2.CoA


FAD

FADH2

CoA

2-CoA

H2O

2--CoA

NAD+

L(+)-

CoA

NADH+H+

CoA

CoA-SH

()

3.

CoA

L(+)-CoA

CoA

CoA+CoA


2ATP

CoA

FAD

FADH2

AMP

PPi

H2O

CoA

ATP

CoASH

H2O

2

--CoA

3ATP

L(+)-

CoA

H2O

NAD+

NADH+H+

CoA-SH

CoA

TAC


4.

16

2

  • 1CoA

    • 1CoA

    • 1NADH+H+

    • 1FADH2


  • 7 8CoA

    • 7NADH+H+

    • 7FADH2

ATP

812 + 73

+ 72 = 131

ATP

131 2 = 129


3-2CoA

3-CoA

2-CoA

2-CoA

H2O

D(-)-CoA

D(-)-CoA

L(+)-CoA

1.


ATP

CO2

5-

2.

Ile Met Thr Val

CH3CH2CO~CoA

L-CoA

D-CoA

CoA

TAC


(acetoacetate) -(-hydroxybutyrate)(acetone)

0.03~0.5mmol/L(0.3~5mg/dl)


1.


2.


2CoA

CoA

CoA

HMGCoA

CoA

D(-)--

CoA

2CoA


3.

*

*


FFA

4.


FFATG

CoA

CoA

+

CoA


1.

    • 16


G

CoA

2.

CoAATPHCO3NADPHMn2+

CoA

NADPH


CO2

CO2

NADP+

H2O

CoA

NADPH+H+

AMP PPi

ATP

ATP

CoA

CoA

CoA


ATP + HCO3- + CoA

CoA + ADP + Pi

3.

1CoA

CoA (acetyl CoA carboxylase)


2

CoACoA2


*

    • 7CoA


    • 7



(ACP)4-


CH3(CH2)14COOH

+

7 CO2+ 6H2O

+

8HSCoA+ 14NADP+

CH3COSCoA

+

7 HOOCH2COSCoA

+

14NADPH+H+


  • 1.

    • CoA NADPH+H+ 2418

  • 2.

    • CoA NADPH+H+ 2426


H++NADH

E-FAD

Fe2+

Fe2+

CoA+2H2O

NAD+

E-FADH2

Fe3+

Fe3+

CoA+O2

NADH-cytb5

Cytb5

4589

91215



1.

CoA

CoA

CoA


2.

PKA

CoA

CoA

P


( Prostaglandin, PG)

( thromboxane, TX)

( leukotrienes, LT)


20:4581114

  • PG


  • TX


(LTB4)

  • LT


PGTXLT

1.

PG

TX


2.

LTA4

lipoxygenase

(5-HPETE, 5-hydroperoxy-eicotetraenoic acid)

LTB4LTC4

LTD4LTE4


PGTXLT

1. PG

  • PGE2

  • PGE2PGA2

  • PGE2PGI2

  • PGF2


2. TX

  • PGF2TXA2 PGI2 PGI3

  • TXA3TXA2


3. LT

  • LTC4LTD4LTE4

  • LTD4

  • LTB4


Metabolism of Phospholipid


FA

FA

Pi

X

FA

Pi

X

X


X =




(cephalin)

(lecithin)

(phosphatidyl inositol)

(phosphatidyl serine)


(cardiolipin)


1.

  • 2.

3.

ATPCTP


4.


CDP-


X

R1R2


PLA1

PLB2

PLD

PLB1

PLA2

PLC

(phospholipase , PLA)


  • (sphingolipids)

    • (sphingosine)


X----

X


  • 1.

    • CoANADPH+H+FADH2

2.



3.

N-

(PLC)


Metabolism of Cholesterol


* (cholesterol)


(27)

(28)

(29)


*


*

140



1

18CoA + 36ATP + 16(NADPH+H+)

-


1.


2.

3.


HMG-CoA


(bile acid)

7 -


Metabolism of Lipoprotein



400~700mg/dl(5 mmol/L)

10~150mg/dl (0.11 ~ 1.69mmol/L)

150~250mg/dl (48.44 ~ 80.73 mmol/L)

100~250mg/dl (2.59 ~ 6.47 mmol/L)

5~20mg/dl (0.195 ~ 0.805 mmol/L)

*


CM

(lipoprotein)

CMVLDLLDLHDL



(apolipoprotein, apo)

18

apo A apo B apo C apo D apo E

( ) (100 48 )( )


TG

apo B48A

A A

+


LPL

;

CMTG

  • TG


TG

+ apo B100E

LPLHL

LPL

VLDL

LDL

VLDL

FFA

FFA


VLDL

TG


VLDL

  • LDL

  • LDL


LDL




2261

ABCA1ATPAI (ATP-binding cassetle transporter A1)(cholesterol-efflux regulatory protein, CERP)

ATP


1.

TG > 2.26mmol/l 200mg/dl

14~16h > 6.21mmol/l 240mg/dl

> 4.14mmol/l 160mg/dl


()

()


2.

LPLLCATapoCBEACLDL

3.


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