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MCD & LDC. MDC: More developed country is further along on the development spectrum. LDC: Less developed countries are in an earlier stage of development. Some like to use phrasing like: developing or emerging Implying that some progress has already been made. HDI: Human Development Index.

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Mcd ldc
MCD & LDC

  • MDC: More developed country is further along on the development spectrum.

  • LDC: Less developed countries are in an earlier stage of development. Some like to use phrasing like: developing or emerging

    • Implying that some progress has already been made.


Hdi human development index
HDI: Human Development Index

  • 3 factors: economic, social, and demographic

  • The UN chooses 1 econ factor, 2 social factors, 1 demo factor.

  • Econ: GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

  • Social: literacy & amount of education

  • Demo: Life expectancy


HDI

  • Highest HDI is 1.0 or 100%.

  • The HDI is calculated every year, and has been since 1990.

  • Highest include many places in Europe. Norway is .971 (Highest ever in 2009)

  • Lowest in 2009 Niger .340


GDP

  • Gross Domestic Product is the value of the total output of goods and services during a year.

  • Divide GDP by total population and it averages the amount made by the average individual.

  • 2009: GDP in U.S. was $14 trillion with a population of 307 million.

    • GDP per capita was $45,600

  • The higher the per capita GDP the greater chances for citizens to have a good life.


Other economic factors
Other Economic Factors

  • Jobs, Productivity, & Availability of Consumer Goods

    • Jobs fall in to 3 categories:

    • Primary (includes agriculture)

    • Secondary (includes manufacturing)

    • Tertiary (includes services)


Job sectors
Job Sectors

  • Primary: directing extract materials from the earth (mining, farming, fishing)

  • Secondary: Processing & transforming raw materials. (manufacturing of all kinds)

  • Tertiary: provision of goods and services in exchange for $. (retail, banking, law, education, government)


Jobs on gdp
Jobs on GDP

  • In order to determine levels of development you must figure out what percentage of the GDP each sector represents.

    • LDCs: High percent of jobs in primary sector

    • MDCs: percentage of jobs in secondary sector is diminishing

    • MDCs: percentage of jobs in tertiary sector is very large


Productivity
Productivity

  • Productivity is the value of a product compared to the amount of labor necessary to make it.

  • Its measured by value added.

  • Value added: gross value of the product minus the cost of raw material and energy.

  • Workers in MDCs produce more with less effort.

    • Why?


Consumer goods
Consumer Goods

  • The wealth generated by production is used to purchase consumer goods.

    • Especially goods related to transportation and communication.

  • In an MDC these products are accessible to almost all residents, while in an LDC these products do not play a role in daily life.

  • In LDCs these goods tend to show the gap between the “haves” and the “have nots” in a society.


Social indicators education
Social Indicators: Education

  • Generally: Higher HDI the better the education services.

    • One aspect is the number of students per teacher. Fewer students means more individual attention.

    • Literacy Rate: MDCs this rate exceeds 98% compared to 60% in LDCs

  • In LDCs education DOES received a higher percentage of the GDP.


Social factors health welfare
Social Factors: Health & Welfare

  • In MDCs people are healthier which is often influenced by diet.

  • According to the UN guidelines MDCs often have a higher caloric intake than necessary, while LDCs get less than recommended.

  • In most European countries government pays for 70% or more of health costs. In LDCs people pay more than half.

  • The exception is the U.S. where people pay on average 55% of their healthcare costs.


Demographic indicators
Demographic Indicators

  • Life Expectancy

  • Infant Mortality Rate

  • Natural Increase Rate

  • Crude Birth Rate

  • Just as in the Stages of Population growth, these affect the level of development of a country.


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