Chapter 10 social constructivist approaches
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Chapter 10 social constructivist approaches . Sesilia Monika. Outline:. Social Constructivist Approaches to teaching Teachers and peers as joint contributors to student’s learning Structuring small-group work Social constructivist program. Social Constructivist Approaches to teaching.

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Chapter 10 social constructivist approaches

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Chapter 10 social constructivist approaches

Chapter 10social constructivist approaches

Sesilia Monika



  • Social Constructivist Approaches to teaching

  • Teachers and peers as joint contributors to student’s learning

  • Structuring small-group work

  • Social constructivist program

Social constructivist approaches to teaching

Social Constructivist Approaches to teaching

  • Social Constructivist Approach: approach that emphasizes the social context of learning and the idea that knowledge is mutually built and constructed

  • Emphasizes that students construct knowledge through social interaction with others

Chapter 10 social constructivist approaches

  • Piaget  Vygotsky

  • Piaget : teachers should provide support fir students to explore

  • Vygotsky : teachers should create many opportunities for students to learn by coconstructing knowledge along with teachers and with peers

  • Piaget and Vygotsky: teacher serve as facilitators and guides rather than directors and molders of children’s learning

Situated cognition

Situated Cognition

  • Situated cognition: the idea that thinking occurs (is situated) in social and physical context

  • Knowledge is embedded in, and connected to, the context in which the knowledge developed

  • So, create learning situations that are close to real world circumstances as possible

Teachers and peers as joint contributors to student s learning

Teachers and peers as joint contributors to student’s learning

  • Scaffolding

  • Cognitive Apprenticeship

  • Tutoring

  • Cooperative Learning



  • Scaffolding: the technique if changing the level of support over the course of a teaching session

    • A more skilled person (teacher or more advanced peer of the child) adjust the amount of guidance to fit the student’s current performance

    • New task  direct instruction, as the student’s competence increases, the teacher provides less guidance

Cognitive apprenticeship

Cognitive apprenticeship

  • Cognitive apprenticeship: a relationship in which an expert stretches and supports a novice’s understanding and use of culture’s skills

    • Apprenticeship  active learning & situated nature of learning

    • Teacher/more skilled peers: model strategies for students  support students’ effort at doing task  encourage the students to continue their work independently



  • Tutoring: basically cognitive apprenticeship between an expert and novice

  • Individual tutoring is an effective strategy that benefits many students, especially those who are not doing well in a subject

    • Classroom aides, volunteers, and mentors

    • Peer tutors



  • Classroom aides, volunteers, and mentors

    • The Reading Recovery: 1 on 1 tutorial (for students who are having difficulty learning to read after one year of formal instruction)

    • Success for all (SFA)  Robert Slavin  systematic reading program (phonics, vocabulary, story telling, and story retelling)



  • Peer tutors: one student teaches another

    • Cross-age peer tutoring (the peer is older)

    • Same-age peer tutoring/classmate (more likely to embarrass a student and lead to negative social comparison)

Peer tutors

Peer tutors

  • PALS: Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies

    • Guru mengidentifikasisiswa yang memerlukanbantuandansiswamana yang sesuaiuntukmembantunyadalambelajar

    • 25-30 menit, 4x seminggu, Reading&mathematics, KG-6th grade

  • Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: provides opportunities for students to alternate in tutor and tutee roles

  • Class Wide Peer Tutoring: tutor training, reciprocal teaching, motivational strategies such as team competition

Peer tutor

Peer tutor

  • Online Peer Tutoring: teacher engaging students in online tutoring  students working together online  online tutoring activities are conducted by trained, knowledgeable students

Cooperative learning

Cooperative learning

  • Cooperative learning: learning that occurs when students work in small groups to help each other learn

    • Cooperative learning effective if: group rewards are generated, individuals are held accountable

    • Increase motivation: positive peer interaction and positive feelings

    • Increase interdependence and connection with other students

    • Produce better results on complex tasks

Cooperative learning approaches

Cooperative learning approaches

  • Student-Teams-Achievement Division(STAD)

  • The Jigsaw classroom

  • Learning together

  • Group investigation

  • Cooperative scripting

Student teams achievement division stad

Student-Teams-Achievement Division(STAD)

  • Team recognition and group responsibility for learning in mixed-ability groups

  • 4-5 members of group

  • Teacher presents a lesson  students study worksheet  students monitor their team members’ performance to ensure that all members have mastered their material

  • Team practices working on problems together and study together, but the members take quizzes individually

  • The resulting individual scores contribute to team’s overall score, not on an absolute score, but each contribution counts

The jigsaw classroom

The Jigsaw Classroom

  • Jigsaw I:

    • 6 member teams

    • Work on material that has been broken down into parts  Each team member is responsible for a part  Members of different teams who have studied the same part convene, discuss their part, and then return to their teams and teaching other team members

  • Jigsaw II:

    • 4-5 member teams

    • All team members study the entire lesson  students become expert on one aspects of lesson  meet in expert groups  return to their teams

Learning together

Learning together

  • Face-to-face interaction

  • Positive interdependence

  • Individual accountability

  • Development of interpersonal group

    Emphasis on discussion and team building

Group investigation

Group Investigation

  • 2-6 member groups

  • The teacher chooses a problem for the class to study  Students decide what they want to study in exploring them(individually)  group gets together, integrating, summarizing, and presenting the findings as group project

Cooperative scripting

Cooperative scripting

  • Students work in reciprocal pairs

  • Taking turns summarizing information and orally presenting it to each other

  • One member presents the material

  • The other member listens, monitor presentation for any mistakes, and gives feedback, and vice versa

Cooperative learning1

Cooperative learning

  • Creating cooperative community

    • Class cooperation: daily class cleanup, running class bank or business, etc

    • Interclass cooperation: classes work together in joint projects

    • School-wide cooperation: cooperation at level of entire school

    • School-parent cooperation: involving parents in establish mutual goals, strategic plans, and creating activities

    • School-neighborhood cooperation: classes can perform neigborhood service projects

Evaluating cooperative learning

Evaluating Cooperative learning

  • Positive aspects

    • Increased interdependence and interaction with other students

    • Enhanced motivation to learn

    • Improved learning by teaching materials to others

  • Negative aspects:

    • Some students prefers to work alone

    • Low-achieving students may slow down the progress of high-achieving students

    • Social loafing

    • Some students may become distracted from group task

Thank you

Thank you…

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