语言是一个复杂适应系统
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语言是一个复杂适应系统 清华大学 2005.10.12 王士元 William S.-Y. Wang 香港中文大学, 中央研究院 [email protected] - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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语言是一个复杂适应系统 清华大学 2005.10.12 王士元 William S.-Y. Wang 香港中文大学, 中央研究院 [email protected] http://www.ee.cuhk.edu.hk/~wsywang. 复杂 适应 系统 C omplex A daptive S ystem. Jacob, Francois. 1977. Evolution and tinkering. Science 196.1161-1166 .

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语言是一个复杂适应系统

清华大学 2005.10.12

王士元William S.-Y. Wang

香港中文大学, 中央研究院

[email protected]

http://www.ee.cuhk.edu.hk/~wsywang


复杂 适应 系统

Complex

Adaptive

System


  • Jacob, Francois. 1977. Evolution and tinkering. Science 196.1161-1166.

  • “…often without knowing what he is going to produce, … uses whatever he finds around him, old cardboards, pieces of strings, fragments of wood or metal, to make some kind of workable object.”


  • Gell-Mann, Murray. 1994. The Quark and the Jaguar. Freeman.

  • What is especially hard for many people to accept is that chance plus selectionpressure can lead from a simple initial condition to highly complex forms and to complex ecological communities comprising such forms. They cannot really bring themselves to believe that such evolution can take place without some kind of guiding hand, some kind of design. [316].


Major transitions

heat

ice > water > steam

complexity

words > sentences > hierarchy

recursion


Several possible phase transitions
Several possible phase transitions

human language

hierarchical structure

(incl. embedding)

compositionality

(Simple word order & recursion)

animal communication system

segmental phonology

symbolization


kn- > n-knight > nightknow > noknew > newknead > needknot > notknave > nave..Cf: gnarl, gnome, gnaw, …acknowledge, agnostic, …


l l l l l

裸 落 練 涼 藍

果 各 柬 京 監


舌根音消失

上古英語 k, g  0 / -n

上古漢語 k, g  0 / -l


杜甫 丽人行

1 – 6 [阴-阳] 17 – 26 [阳-阴]

新人尘珍

真匀神津

春麟巡茵

苹巾

伦 嗔


W.S-Y.Wang.Feb.1973.

Scientific American.


Minimum balloons comprising 90% points from each individual tone type.

The Mandarin tones are relatively compact and discretely distributed, which allows for more successful tone recognition.

Peng, Gang and Wang, W. S-Y. (2005). “Tone recognition of continuous Cantonese speech based on support vector machines.” Speech Communication, 45:49-62.


1980 149
赵元任,语言问题。 tone type.1980:149

施氏食狮史

石室诗士施氏,嗜狮,誓食十狮。氏时时适市视狮。十时,适十狮适市。是时,适施氏适市。氏视是十狮,恃矢势,使是十狮逝世。氏拾是十狮尸,适石室。石室湿,氏使侍拭石室。石室拭,氏始试食十狮尸。食时,始识是十狮尸,实十石狮尸。试释是事。


1980 1491
赵元任,语言问题。 tone type.1980:149

施氏食狮史

石室诗士施氏,嗜狮,誓食十狮。氏时时适市视狮。十时,适十狮适市。是时,适施氏适市。氏视是十狮,恃矢势,使是十狮逝世。氏拾是十狮尸,适石室。石室湿,氏使侍拭石室。石室拭,氏始试食十狮尸。食时,始识是十狮尸,实十石狮尸。试释是事。


广州话   普通话 tone type.广州话   普通话

眼     眼睛 鼻 鼻子

耳     耳朵 杯 杯子

女     女儿 被 被子

仔     儿子 枱     桌子

翼     翅膀 凳     凳子

衫 衣服 袖     袖子

纽     纽扣 袜 袜子

蟹     螃蟹 橙     橙子

蔗     甘蔗 竹     竹子

冇     没有 篮 篮子

知     知道 蚊 蚊子

易     容易

靓     漂亮 例子来自 陈卉 2005。


荀子 tone type.ca.323 BCE

名无固宜,约之以命,

约定俗成谓之宜。

名无固实,约之以命,

约定俗成谓之实名。

名有固善,径易而不拂,

谓至善名。


Model pair-wise interactions between agents: tone type.

  • select at random a speaker and a listener

  • select a meaning, mi, that speaker attempts to communicate to listener

  • select an utterance, uj, with which speakerattempts to convey mi

  • select a meaning, mk, that listener infers on hearing utterance uj

  • determine whether the communication was successful (i.e. mi = mk) — if successful, strengthen the mappings between mi and uj— if unsuccessful, weaken the mappings between mi / mk and uj

  • repeat until system converges to some stable state (note that it doesn’t always converge!)


Self-organization and selection in the emergence of vocabulary. J. Ke, J.W. Minett, C.-P. Au & W.S.-Y. Wang, Complexity, 7:4:1–14, 2002 .

0.3

0.2


Modeling the emergence of the lexicon learning

Agent 1 vocabulary.

Agent 2

This weight reduced

This weight reduced

Modeling the Emergence of the Lexicon — learning

  • An example of an unsuccessful communication:


Modeling the emergence of the lexicon example

Agent 1 vocabulary.

Agent 2

This weight increased

This weight increased

Modeling the Emergence of the Lexicon — example

  • An example of a successfulcommunication:


Emergence of vocabulary
Emergence vocabulary. of vocabulary.

10 agents, M = U = 3, D = 0.2


Percentage of languages with various word orders. vocabulary. Table adapted from M.C.Baker, 2001, The Atoms of Language; data based on R.Tomlin, 1986, Basic Word Order.


Gell mann murray and merritt ruhlen 2005 the origin and evolution of word order ms
Gell-Mann, Murray and Merritt Ruhlen. 2005. The origin and evolution of word order. ms.

Table 1. Distribution of syntactic types inthe world’s languages. The numbers aftereachfamily represents the number of languageswith SOV, SVO, and VSO orders,given in that order.

World: 710-595-170

[1] Khoisan: 6-4-1 [6] Dene-Caucasian: 79-14-0

[2] Congo-Saharan: 61-279-17 Basque: 1-0-0

Niger-Kordofanian: 34-223-2 Caucasian: 34-0-0

Nilo-Saharan: 27-56-15 Burushaski: 1-0-0

[3] Indo-Pacific: 148-10-0 Sino-Tibetan: 33-13-0

[4] Australian: 53-19-1 Ket: 1-0-0

[5] Austric: 17-114-70 Na-Dene: 9-0-0

Austroasiatic: 5-22-0 [7] Nostratic-Amerind: 346-155-81

Miao-Yao: 0-3-0 Afro-Asiatic: 34-33-15

Daic: 1-11-0 Nostratic: 173-64-5

Austronesian: 11-78-70 Eurasiatic: 151-64-5

Amerind: 139-58-61


John evolution of word order. ms.has been reading

A, B, C, … are X, Y, Z, … respectively.


Stabler e p 2004 varieties of crossing dependencies cognitive science 28 699 270
Stabler, E.P. 2004. Varieties of crossing dependencies. evolution of word order. ms.Cognitive Science 28.699-270.

… I saw Cecilia helpHenk feed the hippo.

… ik CeciliaHenkde nijlpaarden zag helpenvoeren.


Chao, Yuenren. 1959. Ambiguity in Chinese. evolution of word order. ms.

  • Ambiguity is the property of a symbol in being

  • understandable in more than one way. . . .

  • A symbol is vague in so far as its borderland cases

  • of applicability loom large in comparison with its

  • clear cases. …

  • A symbol is general when it is applicable to any

  • one of a number of things whose differences are

  • not denied or necessarily overlooked, but regarded

  • as irrelevant in the context in which the symbol is

  • used.


歧义句 evolution of word order. ms.

我们没有作不好的事情

吕叔湘 1984。

叫汽车快点儿

赵元任 1959。

鸡不吃了 赵元任 1948。


a evolution of word order. ms.

a

a

b

b

b

X V N1 p N2 Adj

I know a man with a wooden leg called Peter

Conosco una persona con una gamba di legno chiamata Pietro


a evolution of word order. ms.

a

b

b

X V p N1 Adj N2

我 认得 装了 木腿 叫 Peter 的 人

X V p Adj N1 N2

我 认得 装了 叫 Peter 的 木腿 的 人


a evolution of word order. ms.

a

a

b

b

b

N1 V1 N2 V2 Adv

I saw him smile yesterday

L’ho visto sorridere ieri


Emergence ef Lengeege, p.103 evolution of word order. ms.

Thes perspecteve ellews ene te see thet vereees enemels ere smert en the weys neterel selecteen hes fevered end steped where theer lefestyle dees net reqeere e cestemezed leerneng pregrem. The hemen specees es semelerly smert en ets ewn edepteve weys end elmest emberressengly steped en ethers. The edee thet hemen leerneng evelved frem e few precesses, whech ere well ellestreted en ether enemels, te fet specees-specefec hemen needs helps te breng e new enety te the stedy ef enemel beheveer end e new premese fer ederstendeng hemen eregens.


The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas thuoght slpeling was ipmorantt!


Hu shih 1933 the chinese renaissance u chicago press
Hu Shih. 1933. The Chinese Renaissance. U.Chicago Press. rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas thuoght slpeling was ipmorantt!

陈第 (1541-1617)Galileo (1564-1642)

顾炎武 (1613-1682)Newton (1642-1727)

钱大昕 (1728-1804)Jones (1746-1794)

段玉裁(1735-1815) Darwin (1809-1882)


Vowel merger and homophony in English. rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas thuoght slpeling was ipmorantt!

meat meet

heal heel

steal steel

real reel

read reed

feat feet

seam seem


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