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Chapter 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET’S THEORY AND VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT






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Chapter 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET’S THEORY AND VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT . PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. Genetic epistemology – experimental study of the origin of knowledge What is intelligence? A basic life function that helps an organism adapt to the environment
Chapter 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET’S THEORY AND VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT

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Slide 1

Chapter 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET’S THEORY AND VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT

Slide 2

PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Genetic epistemology – experimental study of the origin of knowledge

  • What is intelligence?

    • A basic life function that helps an organism adapt to the environment

    • Cognitive equilibrium – balance between thought processes and the environment

    • Constructivist approach – child constructs knowledge

Slide 3

PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Gaining Knowledge: Schemes and Processes

    • Schemes: mental patterns (thought/action)

      • Organization – combine existing schemes into new/complex schemes

      • Adaptation – adjustment to environment

        • Assimilation – new information into existing schemes

        • Accommodation – modify existing schemes for new information

Slide 4

  • Table 7.1 A small sample of cognitive growth from Piaget’s perspective

Slide 5

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Invariant developmental sequence

    • Sequencing fixed

    • Individual differences entering/emerging stages

Slide 6

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years)

    • Coordinate sensory inputs and motor skills

    • Transition from being reflexive to reflective

    • Development of Problem-Solving Abilities

      • Reflex activity (birth – 1 month)

      • Primary circular reactions (1-4 months)

        • first motor habits, repetitive

Slide 7

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Secondary circular reactions

    (4-8 months)

    • Repetitive actions with objects beyond the body

  • Coordination of secondary reactions

    (8-12 months)

    • Coordinate 2 or more actions to achieve an objective (intentional)

Slide 8

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Tertiary circular reactions -12-18 months

    • Active experimentation, trial & error

  • Symbolic problem solving -18-24 months

    • Inner (mental) experimentation

Slide 9

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Development of Imitation

    • Novel responses by 8-12 months of age

    • Deferred imitation – 18-24 months

    • Research now shows 6-month-olds are capable of deferred imitation

Slide 10

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Development of Object Permanence

    • Objects continue to exist when they are no longer visible/detectable

    • Appears by 8-12 months of age

      • A-not-B error: search in the last place found, not where it was last seen

    • Complete by 18-24 months

Slide 11

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Challenges to Piaget Account

    • Neo-nativism –

      • Infants are born with substantial innate knowledge

      • Require less time/experience to be demonstrated

      • Young children seem to possess some object permanence, memory

Slide 12

  • Table 7.2 Summary of Piaget’s account of sensorimotor development

Slide 13

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Challenges to Piaget’s Approach

    • Theory theories

      • Combination of neo-nativist and Piagetian perspective

        • Infants are prepared at birth to make sense of some information

        • Beyond this, Piaget’s constructivist approach is generally accurate

Slide 14

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • The Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)

    • Symbolic function / representational insight

      • One thing represents another

      • Language

      • Pretend (symbolic) play – developmentally a positive activity

      • New views on symbolism

        • Dual representation – think about an object in 2 ways at one time (3 years)

Slide 15

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Deficits in preoperational thinking

    • Animism

      • Attribute life/life like qualities to inanimate objects

    • Egocentrism

      • View world from own perspective, trouble recognizing other’s point of view

Slide 16

  • Figure 7.2 Piaget’s three-mountain problem. Young preoperational children are egocentric. They cannot easily assume another person’s perspective and often say that another child viewing the mountain from a different vantage point sees exactly what they see from their own location.

Slide 17

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Deficits in preoperational thinking

    • Appearance/reality distinction

      • Cannot distinguish between the two

    • Dual encoding

      • Representing an object in more than one way at a time

Slide 18

  • Figure 7.3 Maynard the cat, without and with a dog mask. Three-year-olds who met Maynard before his change in appearance nonetheless believed that he had become a dog.

Slide 19

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Deficits in preoperational thinking

    • Lack of conservation – do not realize properties of objects do not change just because appearance does

      • Lack of decentration – concentrate on more than one aspect of a problem at the same time

      • Lack of reversibility – mentally undo an action

Slide 20

  • Figure 7.4 Some common tests of the child’s ability to conserve.

Slide 21

  • Figure 7.5 Reversibility is an important cognitive operation that develops during middle childhood.

Slide 22

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Did Piaget Underestimate the Preoperational Child?

    • New evidence on egocentrism

      • Piaget’s tasks were too complex

    • Another look at children’s reasoning

      • Animism not routine among 3-year-olds

    • Can preoperational children conserve?

      • Can be trained at 4 years (identity training)

Slide 23

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • The Development Theory of Mind (TOM)

    • Belief-desire reasoning

      • Understand behavior is based on

        • What an individual knows or believes

        • What they want or desire

      • Develops after preschool age

      • False-belief task – desire, not belief

        • Based on lack of cognitive inhibition

        • Improves with interaction with siblings

Slide 24

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)

    • Cognitive operations

      • Internal mental activity to modify symbols to reach a logical conclusion

        • Conservation – capable of

          • Decentering

          • Reversibility

Slide 25

  • Table 7.3 A comparison of preoperational and concrete operational thought

Slide 26

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • Relational logic – capable of

    • Mental seriation

    • Transitivity

  • Horizontal decalage – different levels of understanding that seem to require same mental operations

    • Based on complexity

  • Limited to real or tangible aspects of experience

  • Slide 27

    • Figure 7.7 Children’s performance on a simple seriation task. If asked to arrange a series of sticks from shortest to longest, preoperational children often line up one end of the sticks and create an incomplete ordering (a) or order them so the top of each successive stick extends higher than the preceding stick (b). Concrete operators, by contrast, can use the inverse cognitive operations greater than (>) and less than (<) to quickly make successive comparisons and create a correct serial ordering.

    Slide 28

    PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    • The Formal Operational Stage (11-12 +)

      • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning

        • Ability to generate hypotheses and use deductive reasoning (general to specific)

        • Inductive reasoning

          • Going from specific observations to generalizations

    Slide 29

    PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    • Personal and Social Implications of Formal Thought

      • Thinking about what is possible in life

      • Stable identity

      • Understanding of other’s perspectives

      • Questioning others

      • Thinking of how the world “ought to be”

    Slide 30

    PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    • Does Everyone Reach Formal Operations?

      • Early Piaget – Yes, at least some signs by 15-18

      • Other researchers – No. Lack of education

      • Later Piaget – Yes, but only on problems that are either interesting or important

      • Seem to be more adolescents at this level than 30 years ago

    Slide 31

    • Figure 7.8 Expertise and formal operations. College students show the greatest command of formal-operational thought in the subject area most related to their major. ADAPTED FROM DE LISI & STAUDT, 1980.

    Slide 32

    AN EVALUATION OF PIAGET’S THEORY

    • Piaget’s Contributions

      • Founded cognitive development

      • Stated children construct their knowledge

      • First attempt to explain development

      • Reasonably accurate overview of how children of different ages think

      • Major influence in social and emotional development, and education

      • Influenced future research

    Slide 33

    AN EVALUATION OF PIAGET’S THEORY

    • Challenges to Piaget

      • Piaget failed to distinguish competence from performance

      • Does cognitive development really occur in stages?

        • Little evidence of broad stages

      • Does Piaget “explain” cognitive development? – more of an description

      • Little attention to social/cultural influences

    Slide 34

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • The Role of Culture in Development

      • Ontogenetic development – development of an individual over his or her lifetime

      • Microgenetic development – change over relatively brief periods of time

      • Phylogenetic development – changes over evolutionary time

      • Sociohistorical development – changes in one’s culture

    Slide 35

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Tools of Intellectual Adaptation

      • Born with elementary mental functions (attention, memory)

      • Culture transforms these into higher mental functions

        • Culture specific tools allow the use of the basic functions more adaptively (language, pencils)

    Slide 36

    • Table 7.4 Chinese and English number words from 1 to 20. The more systematic Chinese numbering system follows a base-ten logic (i.e., 11 translating as “ten one” [“shi yee”]) requiring less rote memorization, which may explain why Chinese-speaking children learn to count to 20 earlier than English-speaking children.

    Slide 37

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • The Social Origins of Early Cognitive Competencies

      • Many discoveries active learners make occur in collaborative dialogue with a tutor

      • The Zone of Proximal Development

        • Difference between what a learner can do independently and what can be done with guidance

    Slide 38

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Scaffolding – tendency to tailor support to a learner near the limit of capability

    • Guided participation/apprenticeship

      • May be very formal and context dependent

      • May occur in day-to-day activities

    Slide 39

    • Figure 7.9 Some functions of shared remembering in children’s memory development. Source: Gauvin, M (2001). The social context of cognitive development. New York: Guilford, p. 211.

    Slide 40

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Working in the Zone of Proximal Development in Different Cultures

      • Cultures where adults and children are segregated, learning is in schools

      • Cultures where adults and children are together most of the day, learning is through real life observation

      • Verbal versus nonverbal emphasis of instruction

    Slide 41

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Playing in the Zone of Proximal Development

      • More likely to engage in symbolic play when others are present

      • Cooperative social play of preschoolers is related to later understanding of others’ feeling and beliefs

    Slide 42

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Implications for Education

      • Active, not passive learning

      • Assess what is known to estimate capabilities

      • Guided participations structured by teachers who would gradually turn over more of activity to students

      • Cooperative learning exercises – help each other; very effective!

    Slide 43

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • The Role of Language in Cognitive Development

      • Primary method of passing modes of thinking to children

      • Becomes important tool of intellectual adaptation

    Slide 44

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Piaget’s Theory of Language/Thought

      • Egocentric speech

        • Self-directed utterances

        • Reflected ongoing mental activity

        • Shifted to communicative speech with age

        • Little role in cognitive development

    Slide 45

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Vygotsky’s Theory of Language/Thought

      • Egocentric is really an illustration of transition from prelinguistic to verbal reasoning

      • Private speech – communicative “speech for self”

        • Serves as a cognitive self-guidance system; does not disappear, becomes inner speech

    Slide 46

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Which viewpoint should be endorsed?

      • Vygotsky

        • Social speech gives rise to private speech

        • More common with difficult tasks

        • Self-instruction improves performance

        • Does tend to turn into inner speech

    Slide 47

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Vygotsky in Perspective: Summary

      • Cognitive development involves

        • Dialogues with skilled partners within the zone of proximal development

        • Incorporation of what tutors say into what they say to themselves

      • Expect wide variations in development across cultures

    Slide 48

    VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    • Vygotsky in Perspective: Evaluation

      • Not yet received intense scrutiny

        • Verbal guided participation may be less adaptive in some instances than others

        • Collaborative problem solving can undermine performance

      • More a perspective, not a theory with as many testable hypotheses as Piaget

    Slide 49

    • Table 7.5 Comparing Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s theories of cognitive development


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