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Ocean Life and Resources. Ocean Life Zones. Upwelling. Upwelling : the movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface. Organisms sink when they die. But these dead organisms are nutrient rich. They must be brought to the surface for other organisms to have food.

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Upwelling
Upwelling

  • Upwelling: the movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.

  • Organisms sink when they die. But these dead organisms are nutrient rich. They must be brought to the surface for other organisms to have food.

  • Sunlight is also a key factor.


Plankton
Plankton

  • Plankton:the mass of mostly microscopic organisms that float or drift freely in the waters of aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments. (Algae and phytoplankton).

  • The basis of all life in the ocean.

  • Make oxygen for us to breath.


Nekton:all organisms that swim actively in open water, independent of currents. (Fish, sharks, whales, squids, octopus).

Pelagic zone:the region of an ocean or body of fresh water above the benthic zone.

Benthos:organisms that live at the bottom of oceans or bodies of fresh water. (Sea urchins, Sea stars, sea cucumbers, sand dollars, crabs, lobsters, shrimp).

Benthic zone:the bottom region of oceans and bodies of fresh water.


Benthic subzones
Benthic Subzones

  • Intertidal and Sublittoral Zone: zones where most life is found.

  • Bathyl Zone: Not much life can survive here but squid, octopus, and whales can flourish.

  • The abyssal zone has no sunlight because it begins at a depth of 4,000 m and extends to a depth of 6,000 m.

  • The hadal zone is confined to the ocean trenches, which are deeper than 6,000 m below the surface of the water.

  • Both abyssal and hadal zones have very few life forms but some life does exist.


Pelagic subzones
Pelagic Subzones

  • Neritic Zone: Area above the continental shelf. Most pelagic life is found here.

  • Oceanic Zone: Essentially everywhere else in the ocean above the sea floor. Separated into 4 more subzones by depth.

  • Staring at the Shallowest: Epipelagic, Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, and Abyssopelagic.


Resources
Resources

  • Food

  • Minerals

  • Fresh water (through desalination)

  • Oil and natural gas


Pollution
Pollution

  • Sediment pollution: Too much sediment carried by rivers into the oceans cans suffocate oysters and crabs.

  • Agricultural pollution (nitrates and phosphates) –leads to algal blooms. Algae die and take oxygen when they decompose. This creates dead zones where no life is found.

  • Toxic pollution: Chemicals, oil, gas.


Deepwater horizon
Deepwater Horizon



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