The us military as an american institution and us military organization
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The US Military as an American Institution and US Military Organization. Lsn 5. American Traditions Stemming from the Colonial Period. Militia and volunteer forces Fear of standing armies Supremacy of civilian authority Colonial separatism.

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American traditions stemming from the colonial period
American Traditions Stemming from the Colonial Period Organization

  • Militia and volunteer forces

  • Fear of standing armies

  • Supremacy of civilian authority

  • Colonial separatism

George Washington is often compared to Cincinnatus who resigned his absolute authority as dictator of Rome


Characteristics of the american military experience prior to the civil war
Characteristics of the American Military Experience Prior to the Civil War

  • Nonprofessional

  • Based on copying Europeans

  • Limited war

  • Enemies mainly British and Indians

King’s Mountain by Don Troiani


Characteristics of the american military experience prior to the civil war1
Characteristics of the American Military Experience Prior to the Civil War

  • Coast defense and Indian Removal used as post-war remedies (defensive plans to avoid war)

  • Militia

  • West Point was the only real contact with professionalism

Sylvanus Thayer: Father of the Military Academy


Elements of a profession
Elements of a Profession the Civil War

  • Initiation/apprenticeship

  • Body of specialized knowledge

  • Expertise

  • Standards

  • Self-regulation

  • Service is in demand

  • Profession-related publications

  • Education system


The army as a profession
The Army as a Profession the Civil War

  • In The Soldier and the State, Samuel Huntington identified three criteria for a profession and indicated that the military profession met all three of these:

    • Expertise in the management of violence

    • Social responsibility; Financial remuneration is not the primary aim of the professional soldier

    • Corporateness; There are certain standards for admission to the ranks and a set of competencies that soldiers are required to exhibit


The army as a profession1
The Army as a Profession the Civil War

  • In The Professional Soldier, Morris Janowitz took a more sociological approach to military professionalism

  • Argues that the military will be a reflection of the society it serves, although it will not be a carbon copy

  • There are real limitations to the civilianization of the military, including the military training system, duty assignments, and daily living conditions that may isolate military people from civilian society

  • Still, the military will and should reflect the dominant values of the society it serves


Military integration in context
Military Integration in Context the Civil War

  • 1948 Executive Order 9981

  • 1954 Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education

  • 1957 Little Rock Central High School desegregated

  • 1961 James Meredith becomes first black to enroll at Ole Miss

  • 1964 Civil Rights Act

  • 1965 Voting Rights Act

  • 1965 First black students enroll at Southern Miss

  • 1967 Loving v. Virginia rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional

  • 1971 Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education upholds busing

Clyde Kennard, a former Army paratrooper, tried unsuccessfully to enroll at USM in 1957, 1958, and 1959


Civilian control
Civilian Control the Civil War

  • In Huntington’s model, there is “objective” civilian control of the military

    • The tenets of military professionalism themselves keep the military apart from prevailing fashions and intellectual currents in society

  • For Janowitz, there is “subjective” civilian control of the military because some civilianization of the military occurs as it interacts with society


Civilian control of the military
Civilian Control of the Military the Civil War

  • President serves as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive

    • Ensures civilian control over military policy

    • Appointment of officers

    • Appointment of Secretary of Defense

  • Congress provides for the common defense…

    • Declares war

    • Raises and supports armies

    • Provides and maintains a Navy

    • Controls budget

    • Make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces


Characteristics of american culture which have molded the army
Characteristics of American Culture which have Molded the Army

  • Individualism

  • Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness and peace as basic goals

  • The desire to achieve decisive results quickly

  • A talent for the design and use of machinery

  • Highly developed productive capability and managerial skills

  • Great material wealth

  • Belief in the supremacy of civilian authority


Characteristics of the american soldier
Characteristics of the American Soldier Army

  • Individualistic

  • Resists discipline

  • Wants to get home quickly


Navy Army

  • Safeguards maritime commerce

  • Shows the flag

  • Enables land power


Air force
Air Force Army

  • Maximizes technology

  • “Gratification without commitment”

  • Sends a message, but seldom can be decisive


Army Army

  • Can achieve decisive results

  • Provides “boots on the ground”

  • Represents maximum commitment

  • Very costly (casualties, time, logistics, etc)


Basic army elements
Basic Army Elements Army

  • Squads

  • Platoons

  • Companies

  • Battalions

  • Brigades

    • Regiments

  • Divisions

  • Corps

  • Armies


Platoon Army

Squads

Platoon

Headquarters

Platoon Structure


Company Army

Headquarters

Section

Platoons

Company Structure


HQ Army

Section

Special

Platoon

Special

Platoon

Battalion Structure

Battalion

Companies

HHC


Infantry Army

Battalions

Tank

Battalions

Heavy

Brigade

Artillery

Battalion

Support

Battalion

AD

Battery

MI

Company

HHC

Chemical

Platoon

MP

Platoon

Signal

Platoon

Engineer

Battalion


Maneuver Army

Brigades

Heavy

Division

DISCOM

Cavalry

Squadron

Division

Artillery

Aviation

Brigade

Engineer

Brigade

AD

Battalion

MI

Battalion

Chemical

Company

MP

Company

Signal

Battalion

HHC


Echelons above divisions
Echelons Above Divisions Army

  • Corps are two or more divisions

  • Armies are two or more corps


Next Army

  • The Mexican War and Introduction to the Civil War


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