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Citing Sources. Chicago Style. Footnotes. Every source of information must be placed in a footnote. This includes references to direct quotes as well as paraphrased material.

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citing sources

Citing Sources

Chicago Style

footnotes
Footnotes
  • Every source of information must be placed in a footnote.
  • This includes references to direct quotes as well as paraphrased material.
  • The first footnote gives the whole citation, while subsequent footnotes of the same material give an abbreivated version.
citing sources1
Citing Sources
  • Format for footnotes is single spaced.
  • No extra lines between entries.
  • Long entries are separated by colons.
  • Punctuation counts
long quotes
Long Quotes
  • When you use a quote that is more than three lines long it must be off-set from your text.
  • It is not put in quotation marks but is indented 5 spaces from each margin.
  • These should be used sparingly and only when you need the exact wording.
ibid and op cit
Ibid and op. cit.
  • Ibid refers to the exact reference as above.
  • “In the same place. Used in footnotes and bibliographies to refer to the book, chapter, article, or page cited just before.”
  • Op. cit. is when it is a reference prior to the one directly above, and simply means “in the work cited.”
  • It is often confusing to use these terms, so unless you are exactly clear, just use the abbreviated version to ensure that you do not confuse your reader.
footnotes1
Footnotes
  • A footnote is considered a sentence that describes the citation you are providing.
  • It should be a natural sentence, therefore the author’s name is first name first, then last name, followed by a comma and the title of the article, followed by where it can be found, publisher, date, etc.
footnote
Footnote
  • In this case, the author is first, followed by a comma. The title of the article is in quotation marks, followed by another comma and the end quotation marks.
  • The article is found in the journal, Current History.
  • Journal titles, book titles and either underlined or italicized, never both.
  • Following the journal is the month of publication, year and page number.
  • The final thing is a period at the end.
bibliography
Bibliography
  • The bibliography is a complete listing of all the works cited in the paper.
  • You cannot pad the bibliography by adding works not cited in the footnotes.
  • Just because you read it isn’t good enough, you have to explicitly use it to put in in the bibliography.
  • The bibliography is alphabetized by last name of author to ensure that people can find the source.
bibliograpy
Bibliograpy
  • The punctuation is different in the bibliography.
    • There are periods where there once were commas.
    • The journal articles include the page ranges rather than pages cited.
  • Single spaced
  • Hanging indent
website for guidelines
Website for guidelines
  • To find specifics on books, journals, newspapers and internet sources consult a style guide.
  • You can find these in book stores or on internet cites.
    • http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/cmosfaq/tools.html
  • Style guides provide other useful information such as grammar and punctuation.
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