Citing Sources. Chicago Style. Footnotes. Every source of information must be placed in a footnote. This includes references to direct quotes as well as paraphrased material.
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Every source of information must be placed in a footnote.
This includes references to direct quotes as well as paraphrased material.
The first footnote gives the whole citation, while subsequent footnotes of the same material give an abbreivated version.
Format for footnotes is single spaced.
No extra lines between entries.
Long entries are separated by colons.
When you use a quote that is more than three lines long it must be off-set from your text.
It is not put in quotation marks but is indented 5 spaces from each margin.
These should be used sparingly and only when you need the exact wording.
Ibid and op. cit.
Ibid refers to the exact reference as above.
“In the same place. Used in footnotes and bibliographies to refer to the book, chapter, article, or page cited just before.”
Op. cit. is when it is a reference prior to the one directly above, and simply means “in the work cited.”
It is often confusing to use these terms, so unless you are exactly clear, just use the abbreviated version to ensure that you do not confuse your reader.
A footnote is considered a sentence that describes the citation you are providing.
It should be a natural sentence, therefore the author’s name is first name first, then last name, followed by a comma and the title of the article, followed by where it can be found, publisher, date, etc.
In this case, the author is first, followed by a comma. The title of the article is in quotation marks, followed by another comma and the end quotation marks.
The article is found in the journal, Current History.
Journal titles, book titles and either underlined or italicized, never both.
Following the journal is the month of publication, year and page number.
The final thing is a period at the end.
The bibliography is a complete listing of all the works cited in the paper.
You cannot pad the bibliography by adding works not cited in the footnotes.
Just because you read it isn’t good enough, you have to explicitly use it to put in in the bibliography.
The bibliography is alphabetized by last name of author to ensure that people can find the source.
The punctuation is different in the bibliography.
There are periods where there once were commas.
The journal articles include the page ranges rather than pages cited.
Bibliography vs Footnote
Website for guidelines
To find specifics on books, journals, newspapers and internet sources consult a style guide.
You can find these in book stores or on internet cites.