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Late Classical and Hellenistic Temples in Greece

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Late Classical and Hellenistic Temples in Greece. Hellenistic period: 338 – 31 B.C. Classical architecture outside Athens. Late Classical architecture. I. Late Classical Temples: Increased inward-turning, subject-oriented buildings that heroize individuals .

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Hellenistic period: 338 – 31 B.C.

Classical architecture outside Athens

Late Classical architecture

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I. Late Classical Temples: Increased inward-turning, subject-oriented buildings that heroize individuals

Tholos at Epidauros, Greece, 360-320 bc

(designed by Polykleitos the Younger)

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I.

tholos (pl. tholoi) - temple-like structures w/ circular ground plans

The tholos in the context of the Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros

Asklepios (deified human physician)

the tholos

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I. A. Precedents: What Bronze-Age tholoi did Greeks start to re-use for hero cults?

Mycenaean tholos tomb at Mycenae

ca. 1330 bc

Tholostemple at Epidauros

360-320 bc

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I. B. What are the architectural qualities of the tholos at Epidauros that focus one on the afterworld (death,

immortality for heroes and kings)?

Tholos at Epidauros

Asklepios (deified human physician)

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I. B. 1. Specific architectural qualities and materials of the circular plan.

interiority

Tholos at Epidauros

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I. B. 1.

Tholos at Epidauros – ceiling coffers

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Exterior peristyle: 26 Doric columns

Tholos at Epidauros

Interior colonnade: 14 black marble Corinthian columns with white marble entablature

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I. B. 2. The Corinthian order: why was it used first on monuments that highlight immortality or fame in

some way?

Doric order

The Parthenon, Athens

Ionic order

Bassae

Samos

Corinthian order

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I. B. 2. a. What were the features of the Corinthian order and what advantaged did it have over the Ionic

order?

Corinthian order

Corinthian capital

from the tholos at Epidauros

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I. B. 2. b. What were the contexts for the earliest use of the Corinthian order?

Earliest interiorCorinthian order

Earliest exterior Corinthian order

Cella of the Temple of Apollo Epicurius

Bassae, Greece, ca. 450-425 B.C.; Iktinos, arch.

Choragic monument to Lysicrates

Athens, Greece, 335 B.C.

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II. B. 2. c. What were the origins of the Corinthian order as commemorative/funerary order?

Corinthian capital from the tholos at Epidauros

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I. B. 3. How does this tholos focus the viewer on moments of life in extremis?

Tholos at Epidauros

chthonic area below

chthonic – dwelling in or beneath the surface of the earth

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II. C. Finally, how were late Classical tholoifor human heros adapted by the emerging cult of the ruler and

its architecture?

Tombs in Classical Athens

Hellenistic tomb

The Mausoleum (for King Mausolus)

Halicarnassus, Turkey, 353 B.C.

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Summary

Classical architecture in Athens(Parthenon)

Late Classicalarchitecture

Balance between the

generic & specific/personal

Viewer acutely conscious of this balance

Fascination w/ changing states of specifics in a relative world

Draws viewer into what is not seen: interiority, the chthonic

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II. Introduction: The Hellenistic Period in Architecture

Hellenistic period: 338 – 31 B.C.

Hellas meant Greece in Greek (modern Greek Ellas)

Classical period: 481-338 B.C.

Pericles, democratic leader

Alexander the Great, king and emperor

From

Alexander ‘s father Phillip II ends independence of Greek city-states in Battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C.

to

Romans conquer Cleopatra’s Egypt in 31 B.C.

From

From the defeat of the Persians at Salamis in 481 B.C.

to

Battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C.

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II. A. What major political event ushered in the Hellenistic period?

Reign of Alexander the Great 336-323 B.C. as king of the Hellenistic Empire

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II. B. What political system was imposed upon the Greek lands?

The Hellenistic Empire of Alexander the Great, 334-323 B.C.

Hellenistic assimilation of Greek culture far beyond the Aegean Sea

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II. B.

Division of Alexander’s empire into 5 smaller Hellenistic kingdoms

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II. C. What were some general trends in Hellenistic architecture?

Hellenistic Greek architecture

Monarchy: Ruler cult and its architecture

Subjectivity: stress on introspection/interior experience

Theatricality: drama and/or pictorial illusion in design

Choreography: directed paths

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III. Hellenistic temple design: stress on subjective experience, theatricality

Temple of Apollo, Didyma, Turkey, c. 301-150 B.C.

Architects: Pythios of Priene and Hermogenes of Alabanda

hypothetical rendering of the temple midway through construction

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III.

The Greek World before Alexander the Great’s campaign

Hellenistic Ionian temples

Archaic Ionian Temples

Ephesos

Didyma

Didyma

Samos

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III.

Temple of Apollo at Didyma

Full-scale “blueprints” etched into podium

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III. A. The Hellenistic determination of the subjective experience of the individual

1. What are the basic elements of the plan in the Temple of Apollo?

Parthenon

Temple of Apollo at Didyma

hypaethral (open to the sky)

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III. A. 2. How does the plan of the Apollo at Didyma pre-determine the experience of the individual?

frontal approach = directed experience

Hellenistic Temple of Apollo at Didyma

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III. A. 2.

partial revelation - mysterious obstacle

Hellenistic Temple of Apollo at Didyma

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III. A. 2.

a disorienting passage

Hellenistic Temple of Apollo at Didyma

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III. A. 2.

Hellenistic Temple of Apollo at Didyma

3.

Exits from dark passage-ways to sun-filled “cella”

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III. A. 2.

an interior world within a world

Temple of Apollo at Didyma

Famous Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi

actual house of the god

laurel tree

a spring

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III. B. Classical orders in the Hellenistic period: Compare the Ionic order of the Classical period with the

Hellenistic version at Didyma

III. B. 1. in terms of scale

Temple of Apollo at Didyma

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III. B. 1.

Erechtheion, Athens (Classical)

Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Hellenistic)

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III. B. 2. in terms of decorativeness

Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Hellenistic)

Erechtheion, Athens (Classical)

slide34

III. B. 2.

Temple of Apollo at Didyma, historiated corner capital

Bust of Apollo

Winged lion or horse

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III. C. Hellenistic creation of dramatic and theatrical experience

1. experience of the determined path and ramp (“labyrinths”)

Hellenistic Temple of Apollo at Didyma

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III. C. 2. theater of revelation in the cella

elevated stage setting for oracles

Hellenistic Temple of Apollo at Didyma

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III. C. 3. pilasters in the “cella”

pilaster -- a shallow, flattened, rectangular column or pier attached to

a wall and often modeled on an order

Temple of Apollo at Didyma

Pilasters in a later building

Beginnings of pilasters resting on a tall podium

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III. C. 3.

pilaster, a Hellenistic development: blurs distinction between wall and column

excites surface through plastic articulation

Temple of Apollo at Didyma

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III. D. What was the political context underpinning the new dramatic interiority of Hellenistic temples?

slide40

II. D.

Classical Temple – mid-space object

dialectic between nature and culture

Hellenistic Temple – artificial environment

cut off from nature

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Review

Archaic

Classical

Hellenistic

Hera 1 at Paestum

The Parthenon

Temple of Apollo at Didyma

Pythagorean

(unchanging substratum of

number and ratio)

Ignores the relative/the

specific/the personal

Pythagorean & Sophist

(validating human perception)

Balance between what is known and what is seen, between the generic & the specific

Embraces the changing states of the world

Personal (subjective) experience exalted over the generic

founding of cities (poleis)

Democracy

Classical poleis (Athens)

Monarchy

5 Hellenistic kingdoms

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