Slide1 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 35

Metabolism PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 93 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Metabolism. Chapter 24b. Metabolism. The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc. Anabolism - build up of complex molecules Catabolism - break down of complex molecules.

Download Presentation

Metabolism

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide1 l.jpg

Metabolism

Chapter 24b


Slide2 l.jpg

Metabolism

  • The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc.

  • Anabolism- build up of complex molecules

  • Catabolism- break down of complex molecules


Fates of organic building blocks in atp metabolism l.jpg

ORGANIC BUILDING BLOCK MOLECULES

Monosaccharides

Amino acids

Acetates

Nucleotide bases

Fates of Organic Building Blocks in ATP Metabolism

ATP

catabolic processes

energy

energy

anabolic processes

ADP+Pi

Polymers

&

other

energy

rich

molecules

CO2

&

H2O


Cellular respiration l.jpg

Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 36ADP + 36Pi

6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP


Slide5 l.jpg

Glycolysis

Acetyl CoA Formation

Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport System

Basic Steps Involved

1

2

3

4


Slide6 l.jpg

Overview of Glycolysis


Slide7 l.jpg

Fats

Glycogen

Protein

Other Metabolic Pathways


Glycolysis l.jpg

Glycolysis

P

ATP

ADP

ADP

ADP

NAD+

P

H

P

ADP

ATP

Glucose

NAD+

H

P

2 pyruvate

ATP

NADH

ADP

ATP

ATP

P

ATP

NADH

ADP

P

  • Net:

    • 2 ATP

    • 2 NADH

    • 2 Pyruvate molecules

Cystol


Balance sheet for glycolysis l.jpg

Balance Sheet for Glycolysis

  • Input

    1 Glucose

    2 ADP + Pi

    2 NAD+

  • Output

    2 Pyruvate

    2 ATP

    2 NADH

ADP

ADP

P

P

NAD+

NAD+

ATP

ATP

NADH

NADH


Slide11 l.jpg

Transition Reaction

2 pyruvates

NADH+

CO2

CoA

NADH

+H+

2 Acetyl CoA’s


Slide12 l.jpg

Transition Reaction

2 Acetyl CoA’s

CoA

FADH2

Krebs Cycle

2

CO2

FAD

3NAD++3H

NADH

NADH

ATP

NADH

3

ADP+Pi


Slide13 l.jpg

Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


Balance sheet for the transition reaction and krebs cycle l.jpg

Balance Sheet for the Transition Reaction and Krebs Cycle

  • Input

    2 Pyruvate

    2 ADP + 2 Pi

    8 NAD+

    2 FAD

  • Output

    6 CO2

    2 ATP

    8 NADH

    2 FADH2


Slide15 l.jpg

Krebs Cycle

Handles other substrates

Intermediate molecules used: proteins and lipids

Replenishment of intermediates necessary

Hans Krebs (1937): paper originally rejected


Slide16 l.jpg

Krebs Cycle

Takes 2 complete cycles

8 steps, each with an enzyme


Slide17 l.jpg

3

Krebs Cycle


Slide18 l.jpg

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chemiosmosis

Electrons are transferred from complex to complex and

some of their energy is used to pump protons (H+) into the

intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient.

ATP synthesis is powered by the

flow of H+ back across the inner

mitochondrial membrane through

ATP synthase.


Slide19 l.jpg

Each Glucose Molecule

CO26

NADH10

FADH22

ATP4


Slide20 l.jpg

Electron Transport System

CO26

NADH10

FADH22

ATP4

used to make ATP


Slide21 l.jpg

4

Electron Transport System


Slide22 l.jpg

Electron Transport System


Slide23 l.jpg

+Pi


Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation l.jpg

Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • Electrons are delivered to O, forming O–

  • O– attracts H+ to form H2O


Slide25 l.jpg

NADH+H+

Electron trans-

port chain

and oxidative

phosphorylation

Glycolysis

Krebs

cycle

FADH2

Enzyme

Complex II

Enzyme

Complex I

Enzyme

Complex III

Free energy relative to O2 (kcal/mol)

Enzyme

Complex IV

Figure 24.9


Electronic energy gradient l.jpg

Electronic Energy Gradient

  • Transfer of energy from NADH + H+ and FADH2 to oxygen releases large amounts of energy

  • This energy is released in a stepwise manner through the electron transport chain


Atp synthase l.jpg

ATP Synthase

  • Two major parts connected by a rod

    • Rotor in the inner mitochondrial membrane

    • Knob in the matrix

  • Works like an ion pump in reverse


Slide28 l.jpg

Intermembrane space

A rotor in the

membrane spins

clockwise when H+

flows through it down

the H+ gradient.

A stator anchored in

the membrane holds

the knob stationary.

As the rotor spins, a

rod connecting the

cylindrical rotor and

knob also spins.

The protruding,

stationary knob

contains three

catalytic sites that

join inorganic

phosphate to ADP

to make ATP when

the rod is spinning.

ADP

+

Mitochondrial matrix

Figure 24.11


Slide29 l.jpg

ATP

Net ATP Yield

34 to 36 molecules ATP for every glucose molecule

about 40% efficiency


Slide30 l.jpg

Transition cycle


Overall atp production l.jpg

Overall ATP Production

Electron Transport System34

Citric Acid Cycle2

Glycolysis2

SUBTOTAL38

NADH Transport into Mitochondrion*-2

TOTAL36


Fermentation anaerobic respiration l.jpg

Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration)


Lactic acid fermentation l.jpg

Lactic Acid Fermentation

NAD+

NAD+

NADH

NADH

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

(Glycolysis)

(Lactic acid fermentation)

Glucose

2 Pyruvate

2 Lactic Acid


Slide34 l.jpg

Glucose

Anaerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Pyruvate

no O2

O2

Acetyl CoA

Ethanol or Lactate

Krebs Cycle


Slide35 l.jpg

INQUIRY

  • What is the end product in glycolysis?

  • What substance is produced by the oxidation of pyruvate and feeds into the citric acid cycle?

  • Name a product of fermentation.

  • What role does O2 play in aerobic respiration?

  • What stage during cellular respiration is the most ATP synthesized?

  • What is chemiosmosis?

  • When NAD+ and FAD+ are reduced what do they form?

  • What are they used for?


  • Login