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Metabolism. Chapter 24b. Metabolism. The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc. Anabolism - build up of complex molecules Catabolism - break down of complex molecules.

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Metabolism

Chapter 24b


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Metabolism

  • The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc.

  • Anabolism- build up of complex molecules

  • Catabolism- break down of complex molecules


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ORGANIC BUILDING BLOCK MOLECULES

Monosaccharides

Amino acids

Acetates

Nucleotide bases

Fates of Organic Building Blocks in ATP Metabolism

ATP

catabolic processes

energy

energy

anabolic processes

ADP+Pi

Polymers

&

other

energy

rich

molecules

CO2

&

H2O


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Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 36ADP + 36Pi

6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP


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Glycolysis

Acetyl CoA Formation

Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport System

Basic Steps Involved

1

2

3

4



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Fats

Glycogen

Protein

Other Metabolic Pathways


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Glycolysis

P

ATP

ADP

ADP

ADP

NAD+

P

H

P

ADP

ATP

Glucose

NAD+

H

P

2 pyruvate

ATP

NADH

ADP

ATP

ATP

P

ATP

NADH

ADP

P

  • Net:

    • 2 ATP

    • 2 NADH

    • 2 Pyruvate molecules

Cystol


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Balance Sheet for Glycolysis

  • Input

    1 Glucose

    2 ADP + Pi

    2 NAD+

  • Output

    2 Pyruvate

    2 ATP

    2 NADH

ADP

ADP

P

P

NAD+

NAD+

ATP

ATP

NADH

NADH


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Transition Reaction

2 pyruvates

NADH+

CO2

CoA

NADH

+H+

2 Acetyl CoA’s


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Transition Reaction

2 Acetyl CoA’s

CoA

FADH2

Krebs Cycle

2

CO2

FAD

3NAD++3H

NADH

NADH

ATP

NADH

3

ADP+Pi



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Balance Sheet for the Transition Reaction and Krebs Cycle

  • Input

    2 Pyruvate

    2 ADP + 2 Pi

    8 NAD+

    2 FAD

  • Output

    6 CO2

    2 ATP

    8 NADH

    2 FADH2


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Krebs Cycle

Handles other substrates

Intermediate molecules used: proteins and lipids

Replenishment of intermediates necessary

Hans Krebs (1937): paper originally rejected


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Krebs Cycle

Takes 2 complete cycles

8 steps, each with an enzyme


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3

Krebs Cycle


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Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chemiosmosis

Electrons are transferred from complex to complex and

some of their energy is used to pump protons (H+) into the

intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient.

ATP synthesis is powered by the

flow of H+ back across the inner

mitochondrial membrane through

ATP synthase.


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Each Glucose Molecule

CO2 6

NADH 10

FADH2 2

ATP 4


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Electron Transport System

CO2 6

NADH 10

FADH22

ATP 4

used to make ATP


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4

Electron Transport System



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+Pi


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Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • Electrons are delivered to O, forming O–

  • O– attracts H+ to form H2O


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NADH+H+

Electron trans-

port chain

and oxidative

phosphorylation

Glycolysis

Krebs

cycle

FADH2

Enzyme

Complex II

Enzyme

Complex I

Enzyme

Complex III

Free energy relative to O2 (kcal/mol)

Enzyme

Complex IV

Figure 24.9


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Electronic Energy Gradient

  • Transfer of energy from NADH + H+ and FADH2 to oxygen releases large amounts of energy

  • This energy is released in a stepwise manner through the electron transport chain


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ATP Synthase

  • Two major parts connected by a rod

    • Rotor in the inner mitochondrial membrane

    • Knob in the matrix

  • Works like an ion pump in reverse


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Intermembrane space

A rotor in the

membrane spins

clockwise when H+

flows through it down

the H+ gradient.

A stator anchored in

the membrane holds

the knob stationary.

As the rotor spins, a

rod connecting the

cylindrical rotor and

knob also spins.

The protruding,

stationary knob

contains three

catalytic sites that

join inorganic

phosphate to ADP

to make ATP when

the rod is spinning.

ADP

+

Mitochondrial matrix

Figure 24.11


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ATP

Net ATP Yield

34 to 36 molecules ATP for every glucose molecule

about 40% efficiency



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Overall ATP Production

Electron Transport System 34

Citric Acid Cycle 2

Glycolysis 2

SUBTOTAL 38

NADH Transport into Mitochondrion* -2

TOTAL 36


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Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration)


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Lactic Acid Fermentation

NAD+

NAD+

NADH

NADH

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

(Glycolysis)

(Lactic acid fermentation)

Glucose

2 Pyruvate

2 Lactic Acid


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Glucose

Anaerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Pyruvate

no O2

O2

Acetyl CoA

Ethanol or Lactate

Krebs Cycle


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INQUIRY

  • What is the end product in glycolysis?

  • What substance is produced by the oxidation of pyruvate and feeds into the citric acid cycle?

  • Name a product of fermentation.

  • What role does O2 play in aerobic respiration?

  • What stage during cellular respiration is the most ATP synthesized?

  • What is chemiosmosis?

  • When NAD+ and FAD+ are reduced what do they form?

  • What are they used for?


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