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India after the Guptas. Chapter 8, Section 4. India 3000 b.c. - 500 a.d . 3000-1500 B.C. early civilization. Indus River Valley -modern Pakistan; served as the cradle of Indian civilization. Ganges River -important to Indian culture. Himalya –highest mountains in the world.

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india after the guptas

India after the Guptas

Chapter 8, Section 4

india 3000 b c 500 a d
India 3000 b.c.- 500 a.d.
  • 3000-1500 B.C. early civilization.
    • Indus River Valley-modern Pakistan; served as the cradle of Indian civilization.
    • Ganges River-important to Indian culture.
    • Himalya –highest mountains in the world.
    • Deccan Plateau
india s first civilization
India’s First Civilization
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
  • Rulers Divine Right
    • Religion and Political Power tied together.
  • Economy based on farming.
  • Extensive trade
  • Who were the Aryans?
    • Indo-Europeans who came south across the Hindu Kush mountain range.
  • Pastoral people with strong warrior tradition.
    • Nomadic people who developed their own written language called SANSKRIT
  • Rajas: princes who controlled small kingdoms in India.
india s social system
India’s Social System
  • Caste System
    • Rigid social categories.
    • Based on a person’s occupation and extended family network.
  • Social Classes (varnas)
      • Brahmans= in charge of religious ceremonies.
      • Kshatriyas= warriors
      • Vaisyas= commoners (merchants and farmers)
      • Sudras= peasants/labor
      • Untouchables= not considered human
family in india
Family in India
  • Family basic unit of society.
    • Extended family.
  • Superiority of males.
  • Guru: teacher (generally only males were educated.
  • Divorce was not allowed.
  • Arranged marriages (with dowry)
  • Suttee: a ritual in which a wife threw herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.
mauryan mah oor yuh dynasty
Mauryan (MAH-oor-yuh) Dynasty
  • Centralized government
    • ChandragupaMaurya
  • Empire divided into provinces,
    • Ruled by governors
  • Large army and a secret police
  • Greatest ruler in history of India.
    • Converted to Buddhism(set up hospitals, and shelters for travelers).
    • Trade expanded
  • Dominant in northern India after the Mauryan Empire.
  • Monarchs
  • Admired for their tolerance of Buddhism and prosperity of the country.
  • Much wealth came from pilgrims.
  • Invaded by Huns from the northwest
after the guptas
After the Guptas
  • Believers of Buddhism split.
    • Theravada- “teachings of the elders”
      • Way of life, not a religion,
      • Understanding oneself is the chief way to gain virvana.
    • Mahayana- stressed that nirvana could be achieved through devotion to the Buddha.
      • Believed Theravada too strict,
      • Buddhism is a religion, not a philosophy,
      • Buddha divine
      • Nirvana a true heaven
  • Both declined.
expansion of islam in india
Expansion of Islam in India
  • In Northwest India.
    • Division of the subcontinent into mostly Hindu India and two Islamic states, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
expansion of islam
Expansion of Islam
  • Islam arrived when there was a lot of division in India.
    • India had been divided into 70 states (and they fought each other constantly!)
  • 10th century Islamic expansion.
    • New Islamic state known as Ghazni (in Afghanistan) is founded.
    • By 1200, Muslim power had reached over the entire plain of northern India.
      • A new Muslim state known as the Sultanate of Delhi was formed.
timur lenk
  • Military force crossed the Indus River and raided the capital of Dellhi.
    • 100,000 Hindu prisoners were massacred
  • TimurLenk (Tamerlane)
    • Mongol ruler in Samarkand.
    • 1380s placed the entire region east of the Caspian Sea under his authority and then occupied Mesopotamia.
    • Died in 1405
islam and indian society
Islam and Indian Society
  • Strict separation b/w Muslim ruling class and Hindu population.
  • Many Muslim rulers were intolerant of other faiths.
    • Peaceful means to convert people to Islam, but some destroyed Hindu temples.
economy and daily life
Economy and Daily Life
  • Peasant farmers
  • Landed elites and merchants lived in cities.
  • Farming and trade were important.
indian culture
Indian Culture
  • Temples (Hindu)
indian culture1
Indian Culture
  • Sanskrit Prose
    • 6-7th centuries.
    • Dandin
      • The Ten Princes
        • Created a fantastic world.