India after the guptas
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India after the Guptas. Chapter 8, Section 4. India 3000 b.c. - 500 a.d . 3000-1500 B.C. early civilization. Indus River Valley -modern Pakistan; served as the cradle of Indian civilization. Ganges River -important to Indian culture. Himalya –highest mountains in the world.

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India after the Guptas

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India after the guptas

India after the Guptas

Chapter 8, Section 4


India 3000 b c 500 a d

India 3000 b.c.- 500 a.d.

  • 3000-1500 B.C. early civilization.

    • Indus River Valley-modern Pakistan; served as the cradle of Indian civilization.

    • Ganges River-important to Indian culture.

    • Himalya –highest mountains in the world.

    • Deccan Plateau


India s first civilization

India’s First Civilization

  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

  • Rulers Divine Right

    • Religion and Political Power tied together.

  • Economy based on farming.

  • Extensive trade


Aryans

Aryans

  • Who were the Aryans?

    • Indo-Europeans who came south across the Hindu Kush mountain range.

  • Pastoral people with strong warrior tradition.

    • Nomadic people who developed their own written language called SANSKRIT

  • Rajas: princes who controlled small kingdoms in India.


India s social system

India’s Social System

  • Caste System

    • Rigid social categories.

    • Based on a person’s occupation and extended family network.

  • Social Classes (varnas)

    • Brahmans= in charge of religious ceremonies.

    • Kshatriyas= warriors

    • Vaisyas= commoners (merchants and farmers)

    • Sudras= peasants/labor

    • Untouchables= not considered human


Family in india

Family in India

  • Family basic unit of society.

    • Extended family.

  • Superiority of males.

  • Guru: teacher (generally only males were educated.

  • Divorce was not allowed.

  • Arranged marriages (with dowry)

  • Suttee: a ritual in which a wife threw herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.


Mauryan mah oor yuh dynasty

Mauryan (MAH-oor-yuh) Dynasty

  • Centralized government

    • ChandragupaMaurya

  • Empire divided into provinces,

    • Ruled by governors

  • Large army and a secret police


Asoka

Asoka

  • Greatest ruler in history of India.

    • Converted to Buddhism(set up hospitals, and shelters for travelers).

    • Trade expanded


Guptas

Guptas

  • Dominant in northern India after the Mauryan Empire.

  • Monarchs

  • Admired for their tolerance of Buddhism and prosperity of the country.

  • Much wealth came from pilgrims.

  • Invaded by Huns from the northwest


After the guptas

After the Guptas

  • Believers of Buddhism split.

    • Theravada- “teachings of the elders”

      • Way of life, not a religion,

      • Understanding oneself is the chief way to gain virvana.

    • Mahayana- stressed that nirvana could be achieved through devotion to the Buddha.

      • Believed Theravada too strict,

      • Buddhism is a religion, not a philosophy,

      • Buddha divine

      • Nirvana a true heaven

  • Both declined.


Expansion of islam in india

Expansion of Islam in India

  • In Northwest India.

    • Division of the subcontinent into mostly Hindu India and two Islamic states, Bangladesh and Pakistan.


Expansion of islam

Expansion of Islam

  • Islam arrived when there was a lot of division in India.

    • India had been divided into 70 states (and they fought each other constantly!)

  • 10th century Islamic expansion.

    • New Islamic state known as Ghazni (in Afghanistan) is founded.

    • By 1200, Muslim power had reached over the entire plain of northern India.

      • A new Muslim state known as the Sultanate of Delhi was formed.


Timur lenk

TimurLenk

  • Military force crossed the Indus River and raided the capital of Dellhi.

    • 100,000 Hindu prisoners were massacred

  • TimurLenk (Tamerlane)

    • Mongol ruler in Samarkand.

    • 1380s placed the entire region east of the Caspian Sea under his authority and then occupied Mesopotamia.

    • Died in 1405


Islam and indian society

Islam and Indian Society

  • Strict separation b/w Muslim ruling class and Hindu population.

  • Many Muslim rulers were intolerant of other faiths.

    • Peaceful means to convert people to Islam, but some destroyed Hindu temples.


Economy and daily life

Economy and Daily Life

  • Peasant farmers

  • Landed elites and merchants lived in cities.

  • Farming and trade were important.


Indian culture

Indian Culture

  • Temples (Hindu)


Indian culture1

Indian Culture

  • Sanskrit Prose

    • 6-7th centuries.

    • Dandin

      • The Ten Princes

        • Created a fantastic world.


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