FOREST ECOLOGY. DELAWARE HAS 355,00 ACRES OF FORESTED LAND!. Approx. 5,000 acres of timber are harvested annually. Delaware’s forest products industries provide an excess of 3,700 jobs and and generate an estimated annual wage of $98,000,000. # 34 Who Works in this Forest? .
# 34 Who Works in this Forest?
# 32 A Forest of Many Uses
# 13 We All Need Trees & # 15 A Few of My Favorite Things
A forest is a community of trees, shrubs, herbs, and associated plants and organisms that cover a considerable area that use oxygen, water and soil nutrients as the community attains maturity and reproduces itself.
Forest Ecology is the study of the complex interactions between the LIVING and NONLIVING elements of a forest ecosystem.
# 48 Field, Forest and Streams
Living (biotic) Components of the Forest Ecosystem
Producers (all green plants, trees, shrubs along with some
bacteria , also known as an autotrophs)
Consumers (organisms that eat plants and animals also
known as herbivores and carnivores)
Decomposers (bacteria, fungi, insects, or other organisms
that break down organic material)
Slope of land
There are over 346 species of wildlife living in Delaware of which 273 are forest dependent.
# 9 Plant Diversity & #22 Trees as Habitats
Healthy forests provide quality habitat for wildlife which 273 are forest dependent.
Delmarva Bays which 273 are forest dependent.Blackbird State Forest contains the highest concentration of Delmarva Bays in Delaware.–These freshwater wetlands are natural depressions that are home to many species of animals and plants. Many theories exist to the origin of these depressions, including “whale wallows” formed when Delaware was under the sea. Current theories now include prehistoric meteor showers, retreating glaciers, and wind patterns.
# 23 The Fallen Log, # 24 Nature’s Recyclers & #26 Dynamic Duos
COMPETITION threat to a natural setting.
#27 Every Tree for Itself & #41 How Plants Grow
Symbiosis threat to a natural setting.literally means the living together of two dissimilar organisms, where one or the other, or both are affected.
Usually involves supply of
all of the above
Mutualism is any relationship between two species of organisms that benefits both species.
Commensalism is a relationship between two species where one species derives a benefit from the relationship and the second species is unaffected by it.
Parasitism is a relationship between two species where one species benefits and the other is injured.
Plants are parasitized by viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and a few other plants.
fire, storms, drought, flood, death and disease
harvesting, farming, trails, development, and recreation
# 30 Three Cheers for Trees & # 81Living with Fire
Allelopathy involves a plant's secretion of biochemical materials into the environment to inhibit germination or growth of surrounding vegetation. Allelopathy enhances tree survival and reproduction.
# 80 Nothing Succeeds like Succession
Activity #80 materials into the environment to inhibit germination or growth of surrounding vegetation. Allelopathy enhances tree survival and reproduction.
(pines, black locust, black cherry, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, blackgum, sassafrass, and sumac)
(oaks, hickories, and American beech)
These trees normally are not the first to colonize open areas. Instead, they grow up into an existing canopy.
Usually, these trees are found in the “climax community.”
These trees tend to:
- live a long time
- grow slowly
- have heavier seedsTolerant Species
Intolerant species are generally the “first in” after an event such as a clear-cut or a major fire that substantially opens the canopy.
These trees are often called pioneer species.
These trees tend to:
- be fast growing
- be short-lived
- have light seedsIntolerant Species
# 43 Have Seeds Will Travel
One of Earth’s most valuable resources: event such as a clear-cut or a major fire that substantially opens the canopy.
Biodiversity is the variety and complexity of species that are present and that interact in an ecosystem, plus the relative abundance of each.
One of the biggest threats to biodiversity…
# 9 Planet Diversity
Invasive Species event such as a clear-cut or a major fire that substantially opens the canopy.
Invasive species are organisms that are not native to the area and have the ability to greatly reduce the species richness (biodiversity) of an area.A recent estimate has put the economic cost of invasive plants in natural areas, agriculture, and gardens at $35 billion per year.
#12 Invasive Species
Invasives often demonstrate: area and have the ability to greatly reduce the species richness (biodiversity) of an area. * rapid growth * prolific seed production * high seed germination rates * easy asexual propagation * resistance to many types of control
introduced area and have the ability to greatly reduce the species richness (biodiversity) of an area.
Invasives are opportunistic organisms that often use disturbances as their gateway into a new area, from there they can create monocultures and seriously alter their surroundings.
Japanese Stilt Grass disturbances as their gateway into a new area, from there they can create monocultures and seriously alter their surroundings.Microstegium vimineum
Many plants were that are now considered invasives where introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.
Many do not have the natural controls that kept its population in check and grow out of control, displacing many of our native species.
Southern Magnolia introduced to this area intentionally for their medicinal, ornamental, and food value. Sometimes they “hitched a ride” in the soil, crop seeds or the ballasts of ships.
For intolerant species, even-aged management is best.
Use uneven-aged management for tolerant species.