Chapter 7 nationalism and sectionalism
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Chapter 7 Nationalism and Sectionalism. Focus Question. How did transportation developments and industrialization affect the nations economy?. Transportation Revolution. Roads First roads were dirt trails 1790 created wilderness roads made of logs

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Chapter 7 Nationalism and Sectionalism

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Chapter 7 Nationalism and Sectionalism

Focus Question

  • How did transportation developments and industrialization affect the nations economy?

Transportation Revolution

  • Roads

  • First roads were dirt trails

  • 1790 created wilderness roads made of logs

  • Used to reach new territories beyond the Cumberland Mountains

Transportation Revolution

  • Most roads were privately owned

  • Owner expected to make a profit by collecting a toll

  • Used a pike that blocked the road

  • After collecting a toll, the attendant would turn the pike

Transportation Revolution

  • Steamboats

  • 1807 by Robert Fulton the Clermont, made 150 mile trip in 32 hours

  • NYC to Albany up the Hudson River

  • Steam powered ships made it possible for farmers and planters to increase their trade and profits

Transportation Revolution

  • Canals

  • Erie Canal built by State of NY

  • Linked Atlantic with Great Lakes

  • 1817 freight charged 19 cents per ton per mile

  • 1830 less than 2 cents per ton per mile

Erie Canal

  • Farmers no longer depended on the Mississippi passage to New Orleans

  • Increase the settlement area of the Great Lakes

Transportation Revolution

  • It turned New York Harbor into America's number one port

Began in Britain

Replaces Shipping


Passenger use

31,000 miles of track by 1860

Steam Powered initially.


Technology Sparks Industrial Growth

  • Began in Britain in the 1700s

  • Changes in the textile or cloth-making industry

  • British inventor created device to make spinning more efficient

Technology Sparks Industrial Growth

  • Devices include:

  • Spinning Jenny

  • The water frame

  • The power loom

Slater Opens First Textile Mill

  • Samuel Slater

  • Samuel Slater began the American Industrial Revolutionwith the construction of the first successful textile mill in 1793

Slater Opens First Textile Mill

  • Slater, built the first successful water powered textile mill in Pawtucket, RI in 1793

Lowell Builds Fully Operational Mill

  • Francis Cabot Lowell formed Boston Manufacturing Company

The Boston Manufacturing Company

  • 1813, first factory to operate in which all the processes from raw cotton to finished cloth were completed in a single mill 

  • Eliminated loss of time, labor, and materials

The Boston Manufacturing Company

  • The rivers made it cheaper for mills to run their factory utilizing water power

  • Cheap labor of women and children

  • Easier for mills to produce products

Inventions Transform Industry and Agriculture

  • Eli Whitney

  • While making guns for the government,

  • Realize that if the parts were all made exactly the same

  • They could be used on any similar gun

New Methods of Production

  • Created a system of interchangeable parts

  • Took 10 years to create 10,000 guns

  • Could not be sure the parts were exact

  • Other inventors perfected the the system of Interchangeable parts

Cotton Gin

  • Whitney learned that Southern planters were in desperate need of a way to make the growing of cotton profitable

Cotton Gin

  • In 1794 Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin

  • After the invention of the cotton gin, the yield of raw cotton doubled each decade after 1800

  • Making cotton the dominate crop in the South

Inventions and Improvements

Shoes and Sewing Machines

  • Charles Goodyear

  • Vulcanized rubber in 1839

  • Didn’t freeze in cold weather or melt in hot weather

  • First used to protect boots and shoes from snow and mud, eventually tires

Shoes and Sewing Machines

  • Elias Howe

  • Clothing industry

  • Invented the sewing machine in 1846

  • First used in shoe factories

Shoes and Sewing Machines

  • I.M. Singer

  • Added the foot treadle for use in homes- 1851

  • Price of clothing dropped by 75%,

  • Allowing more people to afford to buy clothes at a store

Industrial Revolution

  • The Industrial Revolution changed the way people worked by having them use machines to do jobs previously done by hand

Daily Quiz

Name the first great canal built in the 1820’s that connects the East to the West.

Erie Canal

Which man played a significant role in creating or introducing the cotton gin, mass production, interchangeable parts?

Eli Whitney

Increase the settlement area of the Great Lakes

was highly profitable for New York

Cities and industries along the canal developed and flourished

Name two results of the Erie Canal.

Who built a centralized textile factory

  • Francis Cabot Lowell

What American industry first used machines to do work previously done by hand?

  • Textiles

Section 2 preview: SECTIONALISM

  • Focus Question: Why did industrialization take root in the North?

  • Sectional Difference

    • North vs. South

    • Tariff of 1816

    • Factory System

    • Cotton Gin

    • Labor Unions

    • Middle Class Emerges

    • Emigration: Ireland/Germans

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