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QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 9. Lessons from the book MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH – basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali. 13- Patterns of derived nouns (Al Ism Mushtaq). There are 7 Patterns in Nouns that we will discuss:

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quranic grammar as sarf morphology of the words lesson 9

QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF“Morphology of the words”Lesson 9

Lessons from the book

MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH –

basics of Arabic Grammar

RASHEED SHARTOONI

Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali

13 patterns of derived nouns al ism mushtaq
13- Patterns of derived nouns (Al Ism Mushtaq)
  • There are 7 Patterns in Nouns that we will discuss:
    • Subject Noun FAAE’Lكاتب=فاعل
    • Object Noun MAFU’OOL مكتوب=مفعول
    • Siffah Mushabihah (Description similar to Subject), Extensive Emphasis AFA’L اسود=افعل
    • Superlative Noun AFA’LA MINاكبرمن= افعل من
    • Amplifying noun FA’AALالرحمن=فعّال
    • Time Noun MAFE’Lمغرب=مفعل
    • Place Noun MAFA’Lمركز=مفعل
    • Tool Noun MEFA’AALمنشار=مفعال
13 patterns subject noun
13-Patterns – Subject Noun - اسم فاعل
  • Subject Noun – Ism Faail اسم فاعل
    • It is a noun that indicates a doer (Actor) of an action.
    • In English we have a similar pattern: “Build” + er = Builder, Painter, Baker, Maker,
    • There is a difference between the noun of subject (ISM FAAE’L) and the grammatical subject which will be discussed in the grammar, for example :
    • QAATIL قاتل in SARF is a noun of subject (ISM FAAE’L) because it is on the scale of FAAE’L فاعل , but it may be a grammatical subject or grammatical object depends on the grammatical position:
    • ضرب القاتل عليا DHARAB ALQAATILO ALIYAN
    • ALQAATIL (murder) is a subject (ends with a DHAMMA) in the first and is and an object (ends with a FATHA) in the next sentence:
    • ضرب علي القاتل DHARAB ALIYON ALQAATILA
three lettered verbs have a scale of
Three Lettered verbs have a scale of فاعل
  • ضرب (Hit)  ضارب
    • نصر  ناصر
  • In a tri-lettered verb, if the Ayn of the verb is a Alif, then a Hamza will be added after the Alif.
    • نامنائمNaa’em
    • صامصائمSaa’em
    • باعبائعBaa’e
    • قالقائلQaa’el
four lettered verbs have a scale of mufel
Four Lettered verbs have a scale of Mufel
  • Prefix the verb with Meem with a Dhammah
  • Add a Kasra on the letter before the last letter

(مفعل) Mufe’l

استغفرمستغفرMustagfer

patterns subject noun
Patterns – Subject Noun - اسم فاعل
  • Ism Faa’elفاعلاسم replaces a verb and is used as a verb (which requires a grammatical subject and perhaps an object) when:
    • it is articulated with الafter it
    • a subject that has a linking pronoun (and an object if the verb form is transitive verb)

Al-AamiloAkooho

  • جاء الرجُلُالعامل أخوه

The man came who’s brother is a worker

Jaa’aجاء – Past Tense

ArRujulالرجُلُ –Subject - (The Man)

AlAameluالعاملُ– Ism Fa’el (replaced the verbعملAamala)

أخوه– Subject of Al-Aamilعامل Linking pronoun “ho” referring back to الرجُلُ

13 patterns ism mafool object
13- Patterns – Ism Mafool (Object) اسم مفعول

Ism Mafool is a noun which is derived from a passive verb (مبني المجهل) to indicate an object (The one which the action of verb was done on)

Three Lettered Form: Foela فُعِلَ Mafoolمفعول

  • Dhuriba ضرب (Hit)  مضروبMudhroob (The one who was hit)
  • Nosera نصر (Supported) منصورMansoor (The one who was supported)
patterns ism mafool object
Patterns – Ism Mafool (Object) اسم مفعول

1. If the verb had a vowel letter (Alif, Wow, Yaa) in the middle (Ay’n) then it is returned to its Original vowel letter (by turning into a present tense in most cases)

  • Qaa La قال  Yaqool يقول  Maqool مقول (said word)
  • Baa’a باَعَ (sold)YABEE’ يبيع (selling-present tense)  Mabee’a (commodity) مَبِيع [the (A’yn ع ) Alif ا is originally Yaaي , therefore it turns into a Yaaي]

2. If the verb ended with a vowel letter Alifا which was originally Yaaى , then it will be converted to YAA .

    • Banaa بَنَىَ Present Tense Banee بنى Mabneeمَبنىِ

or If the vowel letter Alifا was originally wowو then it will be coverted to wow:

    • DaAaaدَعَاَ  Yadoo يدعو(Present)  MadOooمَدعُو = The invited one
patterns ism mafool object1
Patterns – Ism Mafool (Object) اسم مفعول

3. Some times Ism Mafool is used on one of the scales of ISM Faa’elفاعل such as FA’EELفعيل

  • Qatalaقتل  Qateel قتيل (Murdered One)

OR  Maqtoolمقتول

  • Jaraha جَرَحَ Jareeh جَريح

OR  MaJrooh مجروح= Injured one

For non tri-lettered Mafool nouns it will be prefixed by a meemم with dhamma, and the letter before the last one will have a fatha.

Scale of Mof’al

Qad’dara قّدّرمقدّر Muqad’dar

IsTakrajاستخرخ مستخرجMustakhraj

  • Please note: Every non tri-lettered object (Ism Mafool) is Masdar Meem but not vice versa.
patterns ism mafool object2
Patterns – Ism Mafool (Object) اسم مفعول

Ism Mafool is dealt as a noun Marfoo, Mansoob, and Majroor. Some times it will act as a passive verb and will take the place of the verb, in such case it will require a Naaeb Fael (successor of subject). The details of this will be discussed in grammar.

  • There is a difference between the noun of object (ISM MAFU’OOL) and the grammatical object which will be discussed in the grammar, for example :
  • MAQTOOL مقتول in SARF is a noun of object (ISM MAFU’OOL) because it is on the scale of MAFU’OOLمفعول , but it may be a grammatical subject or grammatical object depends on the grammatical position:
  • ضرب المقتول عليا DHARAB AL MAQTOOLO ALIYAN
  • ALMAQTOOL (victim) is a subject (ends with a DHAMMA) in the first and is an object (ends with a FATHA) in the next sentence:
  • ضرب علي المقتول DHARAB ALIYON AL MAQTOOLA
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